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Full text of "Wheat, its products and uses"

Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific l<nowledge, policies, or practices. 



ACE-ia9 



UNITED STATES HEPARTI^KT OF AStilCrLTURE 
Agricultural Research Aca'iinistration 
Bureau of Agricultural Che-^istry and Engineering 



WHEAT, ITS PRODUCTS AMD USES 



y 



prepared by 
Coiimodity Development Division 
Northern Regional Research Laboratory 
Peoria, Illinois 



December 194-2 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Origin 1 

Botanical Description 2 

Structure and Composition 3 

Vitsonin Content 13 

Production Dcvclopnent , 19 

Commercial Types 20 

Production Areas and Variety Distribution 21 

Harvesting Dates and Methods 22 

Relative Importance of the Vjlieat Crop 25 

Grades and Prices 28 

Production, Supply/-, and Distribution 29 

Storage Facilities 38 

Uses 38 

Seed 38 

Feed 38 

Food , 4;Q 

Industrial Uses 40 

Starch and Gluten 4-0 

Gluten - Procea Process 44. 

Alcohol and Spirits , 45 

Malt 46 

Paste 47 

Core-binder Flo^ar 47 

Flour Milling Processes 47 

Modern Process 47 

Other Milling Processes 49 

Geographical Distribution of Milling Capacity and Flour 

Production 52- 

Wheat Utilization Research 56 

Selected References 57 



WHEAT, ITS PRODUCTS AIJD USES l/ 



Prepared by 



Commodity Development Division 
Northern Regional Research Laboratory 
Peoria, Illinois 



Mieat is adapted to production over a v/ide variety of soils and climates _, 
and is grovm extensively throughout the world. In fact, the only in- 
habited regions from which it is absent are the hot low- lying areas of 
the Tropics, It keeps vrell during storage and shipment. These character- 
istics and the unique physical and chemical properties of wheat gluten, 
Tirhich give wheat flour superiority over flour from other cereals in the 
production of leavened breads, have ma.de wheat one of the major food plants 
of the vjorld. 



ORIGIN 



The origin of ivheat is unknown, but it is certain that it was grovm and 
used for food long before the dawn of recorded history. It is mentioned 
in ancient literature, ana archaeologists have found carbonized grains 
of v;heat in the tombs of Egypt and in the excavations of ruins in Turkey, 
some of Vifhich date as far back as 6,000 years. 

Many scientists believe that wheat originated in Liesopotamia (Iraq) and 
spread in all directions from there. Nearly all the cultivated types of 
wheat are being produced in that area, v^Tiich fact indicates that whea.t 
may have originated there. ITild i/j-heat has been reported to have been found 
groY\ring in that region, but some doubt exists concerning the accuracy of 
this report. 



1/ This is a compilation of selected information from various sources 
for use in the development of new scientific, chemical, and technical 
uses and nev^ and extended markets and outlets for wheat, its products and 
byproducts. The sources of this information, in some instances, are cited 
in direct connection T\rith the information presented, but in other instances 
mention of them is only by inference by their inclusion in the selected 
list of references given at the end of this pamphlet. 



- 2 - 



BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION 



ffneat is a mid-tall, annual grass mth flat blades and a terminal spike. 
It belongs to the grass family (graminaceae), the tribe Kordeae and the 
genus Triticum. The following eight divisions of the genus Triticum 
were used hy Hackel 2/ and recognized by others for manj'' years. 



satiATLim 



tenax 



• • • • J 



vulgare Vill Common v/heat 

compactumi Host .... Club Virheat 



turgidum L Poulard wheat 



Triticum . . .< 



< durum Desf Durum vrheat 

I dicoccurii Sch"ranlc Er:iiTier 

1 spelta L Spelt 

polonicum L ."■ polish wheat 

monococcuiTi L Einlcorn 



In recent jears the species of v/heat have been classified on the basis of 
chromosome numbers, and new species have been described. Classification 
by Flaksberger et al. 3/ in 1939 of the species kno^.\m at the present time, 
grouped according to chromosome number and with their common names used in 
the United States, is as folloy/s; 



Diploid series 
14. chromosomes 

T. spontaneum Flaks . , 
wild einkorn 

T. monococcum L, , ein- 
korn 



Tetraploid series 
28 chror.osomes 

T. dicoccoides KBrn. , 

v/ild ernmer 



U_rC , , 



T. tir;iopheevi Zh 

tlmopheevi 
T. die cecum (Schrank) 

Schiibl, ernmer. 

T. durum Desf., d^orum 

wheat. 
T. abyss inicum Vav., 

Abyssinian wheat 
T. turgid-Jiii L., poulard 

v/heat. 
T, polonicum L., Polish 

wheat. 
T. persicijm Vav., Persian 

v/heat. 



Kexaploid series 
4.2 chromosomes 

T. spelta L., spelt, 
T. V'jlgare (Vill, ) Host, 
(T. aestivum. L,), 

comm.on v/heat. 
T. compactum Host,, club 

v/heat 

T. sphaerococcum Perc, 

shot './lieat. 
T. mac ha Dek. et lien., 

mac ha 



2/ Hackel, Eduard. The True Grasses. Transl. from Die rJatllr lichen Pflan- 
zenfamilien by F. Lamson. Scribner and E, A, Southwarth. V/estm.inister 1896. 

3/ Flaksberger, C. A., et al. Key to True Cereals, TJheat, i^e, Barley, 
Oats. The People's Commisarist of Agriculture of the U.S.S.R. Lenin liem, 
all-Union Acad. Agri, Sci., Inst. Plant Cult. 1939, 



- 3 - 



Of the iTheat types listed, the only commercially important species in 
the United States are common, club, and durum. 

In general, crosses betvreen T/heats v:ith the same number of chrom.osomes 
are easily made, and the resulting hybrids are self -fertile. Crosses be- 
tv^een Yv-heats with different numbers of chromosomes are difficult to make, 
and resulting hybrids are generally self-sterile, although some varieties 
of wheat, for example Thatcher, have resulted from crosses between wheats 
of 42 and 28 chromosomes. 



STRUCTURE AND COMFOSITION 



T/TTheat grains vary considerably in weight, size, shape, and color. The 
weight of 1,000 kernels of plump common vriieats ranges from 25 to 40 grams 
according to variety 3 and of Durum v/heats from 30 to 45 grams. The vfcight 
per measured Yfinchester bushel of wheats ranges from 42 to 66 pounds de- 
pending upon a number of factors including moisture content, plumpness of 
individual kernels, soundness, and variety. The vvheats generally met viith 
in commerce v^reigh between 56 and 61 pounds per bushel. The legal vfeight 
per bushel is 60 pounds, and all vrh^at is purchased on that basis regard- 
less of its actual Vireight per bushel. 

All of thu commercially important wheat varieties are either red or light 
amber (in the case of soft wheats referred to as white) in color of ker- 
nel. Some Abyssinian varieties, hovrever, have grains of a rich purple 
tint. The particular shade of color in red and white vrheat depends not 
only upon the amount of color in the episperm but also upon the thickness, 
tint, and transparency of thu outer coats or pericarp, and upon the char- 
acter of the endosperm. 

The hardness or texture of the wheat kernel is determined by a combination 
of factors such as variety, soil, and climate. Many normally hard wheats 
tend toward softness if grown in a sandy soil or if ripened in a cool, wet 
season. The specific gravity of sound wheat varies from about 1.30 to 
1,42 dept^nding upon its relative hardness. 

Th<- wheat grain or kernel is called a seed by farmers and a caryopsis by 
botanists. It has three main parts, namely: (1) the germ or embryo, 
(2) the endosperm or flour portion, and (3) the bran or protective skins. 
(For further details of structure sue figure 1). 

The germ is by v/eight about 1.5 to 3 percent of the entire grain. It 
lies on the dorsal side at the base of the grain and is characterized by 
having high contents of fat, or oil, and protein. 

The endosperm, v/ith the exception of the small space occupied by the germ, 
makes up the interior of the wheat grain and consists chiefly of starch. 
On the average it constitutes about 85 percent of the kernel. 



- 4 - 



The outer and inner layers of the seed coat represent about 13 to 15 
percent of the kernel. In milling, it is impossible to separate per- 
fectly all of the endosperm from the seed coats. The outer coat consists 
of the epiderraiSj the epicarp^ and the endocarp, and the innercoat con- 
sists of the testa, episperm and aleurone cells. Most of the coloring 
matter of the bran lies in the episperm and determines the kernel color. 

Chemically the vrheat kernel is made up of a number of types of organic 
compounds or constituents, of which starch, protein, and oil are coiTimer- 
cially important. 

Starch constitutes about 61 to 67 percent of the weight of a normal v/heat 
kernel of v\rhich it is the principal constituent, but it may constitute a 
much lower percentage depending upon the degree of plumpness of the kernel 
and protein and moisture contents. 

Vifheat starch granules are lenticular, circular, oval, or subuniform in 
outline. They are further characterized by occurring (in the same kernel) 
in t?/o size groups. According to Wallis /+/ these groups are (1) up to 10 
microns in diameter, and (2) from 16 to $0 microns, with average sizes, 
5 and 20 to 25 microns, respectively, but with more than 4-00 granules per 
milligram greater than 4-0 microns in diameter. Furry 5/ measured the 
length and vfidth of more than 50 granules and found them to average 13.5 
and 11,2 microns for unge latinized and 70,0 and 56.9 microns for the 
swollen granules, respectively. Granule aggregates are rare. Rcichcrt 6/ 
reports that the hilum of each granule is usually centric, sometimes ~ 
slightly eccentric. The hilum form is usually not visible j in large granules 
there may be a cavity or a cleft and occasionally radial fissures; in minute 
granules, a clear cleft. The polariscopic figure is usually centric, fairly 
distinct, and regular. Gelatin! zation, as indicated by the disappearance 
of the polariscopic figure, is complete at 63 to 65 degrees Centigrade, 
The larger granules s¥\rell and fold into a characteristic saddle shape upon 
the gelatinization. 

It is noViT considered by most chemists that starch consists of tv.ro main 
molecular components, one straight-chained in character, the other branched. 
Both types are thought to be composed alonost exclusively of maltose units. 
It is knoY/n that no simple sugar other than glucose is a component of 
starch molecules, since the latter can be quantitatively decomposed to glu- 
cose. There are, ho-j/ever, traces of non-carbohydrate constituents present 
in starch granules. 



4/ Wallis, T. E. Pharm. Jour. 131: 396, 1933. 

5/ Fiirry, M. S. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bui. 264-. 1932. 

6/ Reichert, E, T, The Differentiation and Specificity of Starches in 
Relation to Genera, Species, Etc, Carnegie Institution Monograph 
173. 1913. 




Cuf/c/e 
?^_"^, fp/'c/erm/s 
— J^/c-^/yo 

7es/^<^ or 

•^/euro/?e 
Ce//j 



J 



^■^ or //our Ce/As 



Srt^r? or 
S/?or/^ 



^/our- 



Fig. 1 - Structvire of the -wheat kernel. A. - General shape of kernel and 
location of the principal parts. B. - Internal structure. C. - 
Cross-section of kernel shoYfing location and shape of crease. 
(Drawn by G. D. George, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn.) 



- 5 - 



Edw?,rds and Rippcrton 7/ report the following non-carbohydr?.te consti- 
tuents of cor;u;iCrcial "v/heat starch (dry basis): 

Phosphorus, as PO/ 0.176^ 

Calciuin 0.027 

Magnesium 0.008 

Potassium 0.036 

Sodium 0,025 

Mangels 8/ made a detailed study of variation of phosphorus and nitrogen 
in starches of several varieties of .rheat grovm at a number of different 
stations. He reports (dry basis) the phosphorus content varied from 
0.035 to 0.081 percent, and the nitrogen from 0.040 to 0.055 percent. 

Many workers have reported wheat starch viscosities, but since both the 
manner of preparation of starches for study and the instrui.ients used have 
varied widely, results are seldom coiaparable, V/heat starch pastes are 
less viscous than similarly prepared cornstarch pastes, and like all 
typical cereal starch pastes are opaque and short in texture, in contrast 
to the transparent, tacky pastes of root starches, A 5 percent wheat 
starch paste will set to a gel, on cooling, i//hich is less firm than a 
corresponding cornstarch gel; formation of a gel is typical of cereal 
starches, while root starches remain viscous when cooled. 

The protein content of vdieat ranges from about 6 to 22 percent and con- 
sists of a number of different proteins including a prolamin, gliadin; 
a glutelin, glutenin; a globulin; an albumin, leucosin; and a proteose. 
The first two named predominate, which is a characteristic peculiar to' 
Tfheat and most cereals. The predominating proteins in most seeds other 
than cereals are globulins. 

The proteins of wheat endosperm may be grouped into tviTo main classes, the 
gluten forming and the non-gluten forming proteins, i/^'ith the gluten-forming 
proteins greatly predominating. The v^rork of Osborne 9/ led to the general 
acceptance of the belief that gluten consists of an intimate mixture (in 
nearly equal parts) of the two distinct proteins, glutenin and gliadin. 
More recent work, hovrever, according to Blish 10/ has led to the strong 
belief of the probability that gliadin is an in3!efinite and inhomogeneous 
substance while glutenin - as isolated according to Osborne's directions - 
is a degraded and irreversibly altered or "denatured" protein product. 
The true nature and character of gluten is highly uncertain and indefinite. 
A similar state of uncertainty exists with reference to the individualities 
of the non-gluten proteins designated by Osborne as albumin (leucosin) 
and globulin. Until these matters are cleared up, it is perhaps convenient 
and desirable to retain Osborne's classification. Osborne considered that 



7/ Edwards, D. E., and Ripperton, J. C. Jour. Agr. Res. 47: 179. 1933. 
8/ Mangels, C. E. Cereal Chem. 11: 571. 1934. 
9/ Osborne, T. 3. (See selected references). 

10/ Blish, M. J., Chief, Protein Division, Western Regional Research Labora- 
tory, Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engineering. Personal communica- 
tion. May 1942. 



- o - 



the proteins of the embryo consist of an albumin, a globulin, and a pro- 
teose. The albumin, leucosin, amounts to about 10 percent of the embryo 
and reDresents the greater part of the total embryo protein. 

The proteins 11/ of the seed coats (bran) of the wheat kernel consist 
principally of~a globulin, an albumin, ana a prolamin and differ essentially 
from the corresponding proteins of the endosperm and embryo both with res- 
pect to their elementary." analyses and to their amino acid composition. 
Of the total protein of commercial bran the albumin represents approxiiTiately 
17 percent, the globulin L4 percent, and the prolamin 31 percent. Of the 
total nitrogen of the wheat kernel, 22 percent is contained in the bran. 

The method 12/ used in determ.ining protein content of wheat and the products 
thereof is one of estimation based on an assumed proportional relationship 
of nitrogen to protein. The nitrogen content is determined and then multi- 
plied by a factor of conversion which reflects the assumed relationship. 
In the case of vriiole v/heat and wheat flour, the general practice is to use 
5.7 as the conversion factor. Jones (see selected references), however, 
states that the true relationship is varifible (1) because nitrogenous sub- 
stances may be present vdiich are not proteins and (2) beca.use not a.11 
proteins contain the same proportion of nitrogen. He suggests use of the 
following conversion factors as being the most accurate: 

liVheat, whole kernel 5.83 

YiTheatj embryo 5. SO 

Wheat, bran 6.31 

Yi/heat, endosperm 5.70 



11/ Jones, D. B., and Gersdorff, CE.F, Proteins of Vi^lieat Bran, Part I, 
Jour. Biol. Chem. Vol, LVIII No. 1. Nov. 1923. 

12/ The Agricultural Marketing Administration has developed a simpler and 
more direct method for determining the protein content of Virheat and wheat 
flour. (Reference - Zelenj , L. , Cereal Chem. IS: 86-92, 19^1, and Zeleny, L., 
et al,. Cereal Chem. 19: l-H^ 1942.) The method is based on the principle 
that the gluten protein, which accounts for practically all of the wheat 
proteins, m.ay be rapidly extracted and transformed into a stable colloidal 
suspension the optical density of virhich is a measure of the gluten protein 
content and may be determined quickly and easily by means of the photoelec- 
tric cell. This .procedure determines only the gluten protein of the wheat 
or flour and should therefore give results mor^ closely related to bread 
making potentialities than does the total protein calculated from the nitro- 
gen content. The method has not yet been perfected and has not yet been 
recommended for commercial use. 



- 7 



The oil (fat) content of the whole vAeat seed normallj^- is about 2 percentj 
of comercial bran, 6 percent; and of the germ, 12 to 18 percent 13/. 
The wheat germ oil of commerce is obtained from the germ and, according 
to Kass 14/, contains approximately 15.5 percent of solid acids, 25.5 per- 
cent of oTeic acid, 52.6 percent linoleic acid, and 6.4 percent of linolenic 
acid in the form of the mixed glycerides. Although similar in fatty acid ■ 
content to many of the other sem.i-drying vegetable oils, wheat germ oil is 
higher than most of tliem in unsaponifiable matter (3.5 - 4 percent) and in 
its content of vitamin E. Properly prepared wheat germ oil has good keep- 
ing qualities and is equal to corn oil for food purposes. Because of the 
limited supply and its high cost, its use at present is in the pharmaceuti- 
cal and veterinary trade where it is valued for its high vitamin E potency. 

The moisture content of commercial wheats has an extreme range of 5 to 
25 percent, depending upon the climatic conditions under which the grain 
is harvested and stored. Ordinarily, however, conmiercial wheats contain 
in the neighborhood of 11.5 to 13.5 ■■;ercent moisture. IVheats of the lower 
moisture contents are generally found only in the western rim of the Great 
Plains area, in certain sections of the Rockj* Mountain Region, and in the 
Pacific Northwest where low rainfall conditions prevail. 

Because of the fact that the moisture content of vriieat is very markedly 
influenced by the huraidity and other atmospheric conditions under vfhich 
it is handled or stored, the other chemical constitutents, in order to be 
comparable as between samples, must be reported on a dry matter or uniform 
moisture content basis. In the tables on chemical composition which follow, 
all results are reported on one or the other of these bases. 

Data shovfing the general chemical composition of wheat and the products 
thereof are presented in tables 1, 2, and 3. 

Because protein content is used for price evaluation purposes in the mar- 
keting of a large portion of the vfhcat crop, special data tables, I\fos. 4 
and 5, are presented for this constituent to shovv variations in its content 
between commercial classes and between crop years. 

The quantities of the various mineral constituents occurring in v^rheat are 
shoT/vn in table 6. The iron content of ¥riieat and its distribution in the 
various milling products are shown in Table 7. 



13/ Jamieson, G. S. Vegetable Fats and Oils, Chemical Catalog Company, 
New York. 1932. 

14/ Kass, J. P., Chemist, Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria^, 
Illinois, 



- p ^ 



Table 1, - Composition of wheat, flour, and germ (Basis 13.5 percent moisture) 





. Protein 


Fat 


Ash 


Carboh3'"drates 


Llaterial 


Fiber 


Other 




Percent 


, Percent 


, Percent 


Percent 


percent 


Wheat: 












All types 


12.6 


1.9 


1.6 


' l.S 


68.6 


Hard red 


' 13.5 


2.0 


1.6 


' 2.2 


67.2 


Soft red 


11.1 


1.9 


1.7 


2.2 


69.6 


miite 


10.4 ■ 


1.9 


; 1.7 


[ 1.8 


70.7 


Flour, straight: 












All types 


11.0 = 


1.1 


0.5 


0.4 


' 73.5 


Hard red 


11.8 ' 


1.2 


' 0.5 


0.4 


72.6 


Soft red 


10.6 • 


1.0 


0.5 


0.4 


' 74.0 


Y.'hite 


9.1 ; 

1 : 


1.0 


0.5 


0.4 


75.5 



Source: proximate Composition of American Food Materials. By Ch.arlotte 

Chatfield and Georgian Adams. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 549, table 2, 
pages 89-90. 1940. 



Table 2. - Chem.ical composition of the various classes of vmeat (Basis 13.5 
percent moisture) 





'• Crude 


Crude 




: Soluble 


: Crude 




iUndeter 


Class of ViTheat 


protein 
'(N X 5.7) 


' fat 


: Ash 


scarbohy- 
: drates 


: fiber 


iStarch 


' mined 




Percent 
12.60 


'Percent 


;Percent 


' Percent 
3.94 


! percent 


; percent 


Percent 


Spring 


2.25 


1.85 


2.85 


58.85 


4.16 


Hard winter : 


12.30 - 


2.23 


l.Sl • 


4.37 


2.79 


58.73 


' 4.27 


Soft winter ; 


9.94 • 


2.37 


1.69 : 


3.16 


2.79 


62.79 


• 3.76 


T/niite vfheat ; 
















Pacific coast- 


10.55 : 


2.12 


1.85 


1.55 « 


1.72 < 


64.73 ' 


3.98 


Durum 


12.68 : 


2.10 


1.52 ! 


4.91 


1.78 ! 


59.17 : 


4.34 



Source: Methods for the Analysis of Cereals and Cereal Products. American 
Association of Cereal Chemists, page 124. 1928. 



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- 10 - 



Table 4. - Protein content of wheat^ by classes: State Experiment Station 
varietal samples, 1915-21 crops (Basis 13.5 percent moisture) 







; Protein (N x 5.7) 


Content 


Class 


• Samples analysed 










: Average 


: Range 




NuiTiber 


Percent 


• Percent 


Hard red spring ; 


1310 


'\ . 13.6 


• 7.3 - 21.5 


Durham j 


432 ! 


14,9 


9.6 - 20.8 


Hard red i.'n.nter : 


728 


12.6 


7.6 - 18.5 


Soft red winter : 


457 i 


11.3 


6.8 - 19.0 


I'/hite ^^y^- \ 


530 '\ 


12.0 ! 

! 
! 


6.4 - 19.8 



Source: Milling and Bailing Experiirtents v^ith American Yflieat Varieties. 
B;^^ J. H. Shollenberger and J. A. Clark. U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Bui. 1183. 1924 



- 11 - 



Table 5. - Average percentages and standard deviations in protein content 

(Basis 13.5 percent moisture) of specified numbers of samples of 
spring (excluding Durum), soft red vvinter, and white winter vrtieats 
1931-37 crops 





Crop of 






Class of wheat 


1931 ; 


1932 ; 1933 : 


1934 


1935 : 


1936 : 


1937 


Number 


of Samp^ 
Number ] 


.es Analyzed [ 
Number 'NiJtmber ' 


Number 


Number 


Number [ 

16, 698 ': 

4,632 : 

525 : 

Percent ; 

•4/15.92 \ 
: 9.66 
: 9.14 

'x 5.7) 


Number 


Spring (exc. Durum ) l/- 
Soft red winter 2/ : 
IThite winter 3/ - 

Pre 


17,182 'i 

3,061 : 

352 : 

)tein Cor 

Percent: 


45,027^23,829^ 

3,429: 3,798; 

497: 307: 

itent : . 
PercEHiUp^rcent! 


12,900 ; 

5,310 : 

245 : 

Percent 

14.45 
11.81 
11.39 

Dtein Coi 


28,544 '. 

5,332 : 

577 s 

'Percent 


L2,185 
4,501 

Percent 


Spring (exc. Durum )l/: 
Soft red winter 2/ ~ < 
mite ?finter 3/ ~ 

■ Stc 


4/15.00: 
' 10.44 
■ 10.48 

andard D^ 


13.92! U.69 : 

' 9.99:10.84 : 
' 9.17:10.10 : 

sviation in Pre 


15.01 
: 10.06 
: 9,13 

itent (N 


14.51 
: 9.52 


Spr ing ( exc . Durum ) 1/ 
Soft red winter 2/ ~ 
White winter 3/ ~ 


: 1.22 
: 0.67 
: 0.81 


': 0.99! 0.S9 
: 0.49s 0.69 
: 0.41: 0.58 


• 1.04 
! 0.82 
! 0.67 


't 1.71 
: 0.64 
: 0.54 


i 1.64 
: 0.49 
: 0.43 ; 

( 


1.28 
' 0.59 



1/ GroYm in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Liontana; marketed through 
Minneapolis, ilinnesota. 

2/ Grown in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan. 
3/ Grown in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. 

4/ The protein content of the Spring vdieat samples for the years 1931 and 1936 
are not adjusted to a I3.5 percent moisture content basis as acceptable data 
were not available regarding the actual moisture content of the samples analyzed. 

Source: Protein Surveys of American Hard Spring aad Soft ."inter './heats. By 

C. H. Bailey. Univ. of iviinn. Agri. Expt. Sta. Tech. 3ul. 147. June 1941. 



- 12 - 



Table 6, - Mineral content of wheat (moisture-free basis) 





: Number of 
' Analyses 


! Content 


Mineral 


, Maximum 


Minimum 


Average 






Iiicrograms < 


• Micrograms 


• Micrograms 




t 264 


per gram 
6200 : 


per gram 
2900 ! 


per gram 


potassium ) 


4800 


phosphorus , 


I 310 ! 


5400 : 


1500 1 


4000 


Sulphur 


t 138 


2900 


1000 


1800 


Magnesium 


! 267 


2900 


900 


1700 


Chlorine 


! SO 


' 1900 


200 


900 


Sodium 


100 


' 2700 


100 


700 


Calcium 


: 290 


' 1220 


50 


500 


Iron 


! 131 


420 


! 28 


68 


Zinc 


! 27 i 


100 ! 


19 


' 63 


Manganese 


! 109 ! 


260 


5 


! 49 


Copper 


! 108 


24 


4 


: 9 


Bariiim 


! 1 


! 


— 


! 3 


Titanium 


: ? 


— 


— 


.9 


Selenium 


! 29 


1.9 


.1 


.5 


Nickel 


; 9 


— 


— 


.35 


Arsenic 


: ■ 4 


■ .3 " 


.15 


.26 


Iodine 


26 


.168 


.000 


.067 


Cobalt 


! 7 






1 .012 



Source: Calculated from data contained in The Mineral Composition of 

Crops, B'f Kenneth C. Bees on. U. 5. Dept. Agr. Misc. pub. 369. 

Table 7. - Iron content of vfheat and its milling products (moisture-free basis) 



Material 


: Average iron content 




Micrograms per gram 


ITheat 


: 41.6 


Patent flour 


8.4 


First clear flour 


I 17.4 


Second clear flour 


38.7 


Red dog flour . 


96.2 


Shorts J 


! 139.0 


Bran . 


. 146.2 


Germ . 


91.3 



Source: The Iron Content of Cereals, By John S. Andrews and Clarence Felt. 
Cer. Chem., pages 819-826, November 1941. 



- 13 - 

VITAIvIIN CONTENT 

Vitamins are essential accessory nutritional factors which an organism can- 
not synthesize and vdiich must, therefore, be ingested with the food. They 
contribute no appreciable amount of energy. The vitamin requirements for 
different species of organisms vary over viide limits both quantitatively 
and qualitatively. Ruminants (cud-chewing animals) generally require less 
vitamins since bacteria living in tl:e rumen (aiuxiliary stomach) synthesize 
certain of tlaese grov/th factors 3 this is equivalent to having them in the 
food. 

Wheat, in comparison v/ith certain other agricultural commodities, is a poor 
source of vitamins A, C, and D, but is a good source of thiamin (vitamin B]_), 
riboflavin (formerly knoYm as vitamin G and B^)^ niacin (formerly called 
nicotinic acid), and vitamin E. The vitamins of vrtieat occur principally 
in the germ and outer portions of the kernel, vvhich parts are aiscarded or 
lost in the production of white flour. In tables 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 
14. data are presented showing the thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin contents 
of wheat and its milling products and similar information for other cereal 
grains. 

Vitamin E contents reported by Cabell and Ellis 15/ for 5 varieties of wheat 
were estimated to range from 2,3 mg. to 5.4 mg. of equivalent alpha-toco- 
pherol per 100 gm. of grain. The range for 6 varieties of corn was 1.5 mg, 
to 3.6 mg. 



15/ Cabell, C. A. and Ellis, N. R. The Vitamin E Content of Certain 
Varieties of 'jlieat. Corn, Grasses, and Legumes as Determined by Rat Assay, 
Jour, of Nutrition, June 1942. 



- u - 



Table 8. - Thiamin (vitamin B-,) content of v/heat and its milling products 
(averages of samples from several millings) 





' ProTDortion of 


Thiajiiin content 1/ 


Product 


' whole kernel 


■ Amo^ant in 


Proportion 






product 


. of total 




Percent 


: Micrograms 
: per gram^ 


Percent 


Mieat (cleaned) 


100.0 


5.03 


100.0 


Patent flour 


63.0 


.68 


8.0 


First clear flour 


7.0 


! 3.00 


3.9 


Second clear flour 


4.5 


: 12.37 


10.0 


Red dog flour ; 


4.0 


• 29.65 


22.0 


Shorts ! 


12.3 


' 17.39 


39.6 


Bran ; 


9.0 


9.37 


15.6 


Germ : 


.2 : 


22.93 


.9 



1/ Approximately 11 percent moisture content basis (this information 
from personal communication of June 3, 1942). 



Source: Thiamin in the Products of Tifheat Hilling and in Bread, By 

R. C. SherviTood, et al. Cereal Chem,, pages 811-819, November 1941. 



- 15 - 



Table 9. - Thiamin (vitamin Bi) content of \iheat and other cereal grains 



Kind of grain 



Number of 

samples 
analyzed 



Thiamin content 



Average 



Range 



ITheat 

Corn 

Oats 

Rye 

Barley 

Bu.ckwheat 

Millet 



llJheat: 

Minnesota Spring 
Canadian Spring 
Winter 
Yfest Coast 
Soft 

Cornj 
Yellow 
T'Vhite 

Grain Sorghums 

Oats 

Rye 

Barley 



Micrograms per gram 



Data by Shulta, et al., 1/ (Basis "as is" moisture) 



31 
23 
21 

10 
37 

3 



Data by Nordgren and Andrews 2/ (Bas 



5.6 


: ^.2 


- 7.3 


5.3 


: 4.1 


- 8.0 


7.2 


; 4.8 


-10.3 


4-. 8 


: 4.0 


- 5.7 


6.2 


: 3.8 


- 9.2 


6.0 


: 4.2 


- 8.5 


7.2 


: 6.0 


- 3.2 




s 13.5^ moisture) 



4.4 - 7.7 



3.2 


- 6.2 


3.6 


- 6.0 


3.9 


- 5.4 


4.0 


- 5.2 


4.8 


- 6.2 


4.9 


- 6.7 


4.2 


- 8.8 


8.1 


-10.8 


4.1 


- 5.0 


5.7 


- 7.3 



1/ A Preliminary Survey of the Vitamin B-i Content of American Cereals. 
Bjr Alfred Shultz, et al. , Cereal Chem., pages 106-113, January 1941. 

2/ The Thiamin Content of Cereal Grains. By Robert IJordgren and John S. 
Andrews. Cereal Chem., pages 802-811, November 1941. 



- 16 - 
Table 10. - Ribofla\T.n content of vv±,eat and its nilling products 





Proportion of 


Riboflavin content 1/ 


Material 


Amount in 


: Proportion 




vfhole kernel 


product 


; of total 




: Percent 


Micrograms 

per grain 


Percent 


I^Tieat : 


100.0 ! 


1.00 


100.0 


Patent flour 


65.0 


.34 


! 20.5 


First clear flour 


5.5 


.62 


3.2 


Second clear flour 


4.5 


1.S5 


7.7 


Red dog flour 


4.0 


I 3. SO ! 


U.l 


Shorts « 


12.5 ! 


2.80 ! 


32.5 


Bran < 


8.5 


2.80 : 


22.0 



1/ Approximately 11 percent moisture content basis (this information from 
personal communication of June 3, 1942.) 

Source: The Riboflavin Content of Cereal Grains and Bread and Its Distri- 
bution in Products of "iTheat Milling, By John S. Andrews, et al. 
Cereal Chem., pages 55-64, January 1942. 



Table 11, - Riboflavin content of wheat and other cereal grains 





: Number of samples 
: or 


: Riboflavin 


content 1/ 


Kind of grain 








: varieties analyzed 


: Average 


[ . Range 






; Micrograms 


3 per gram 


Wheat: 






Hard red spring 


24 sajnples 2/ 


1.20 


• 1.05 - 1.40 


Hard winter 


27 s.-mples 3/ 


1.18 


1.00 - 1.30 


Soft 


18 samples 4/ 


1.17 


1.00 - 1.30 


Cereals other than wheat: 








Yellow corn ! 


13 varieties 


1,40 


1.30 - 1.50 


IVhite corn ' \ 


5 varieties ; 


1.3S 


1.30 - 1.50 


Barley ; 


6 varieties ; 


1.21 : 


1.05 ~ 1.50 


Oats : 


5 varieties ; 


1.30 : 


1.10 - 1.45 


Rye : 


6 varieties ; 


1.43 : 


1.30 - 1.65 



1/ Approximately 10 percent moisture content basis (this information from 
personal communication of June 3j 1942). 
2/ 6 varieties. 
3/ 4 varieties. 
4/ 16 varieties. 

Source: Riboflavin Content of Cereal Grains and Bread and Its Distribution 
in Products of ITheat Milling. Bj^ John 3. Andrev/s, et al. Cereal 
Chem., pages 55-64, January 1942. 



- 17 - 



Table 12. - Thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin (nicotinic acid) contents of 
various grains and cereal products ("as milled" moisture 
basis) 





Vitamin content range 


Grain or product 


Thiamin j Riboflavin '. Niacin 


7/heat 

Y/heat germ 

li'ilheat bran 

Corn 

Rice ' 

Oats ' 


Micrograms per gram 

3-17 • 0.7 - 1.7 ' 30 - 46 
31-43 • 6.2 * 38.80 
6 • 4.0 • 49.74 
2-6 * .8-2.3 • 9.88 
2-3 • .8 * 24.00 
5-10 * 2.2 - 2.6 * 



Source: Cereal Products, Vitamin and Mineral Restoration and Fortifica- 
tion from the VievqDoint of the llanufacturer. By R. T. Conner, 
Ind. & Eng. Chera., Vol. 33^ No. 6, 1941. 



Table 13. - Niacin content of wheat and milling products thereof 
(13.5 percent-moisture basis) 





[ Proportion of 
[ 7/hole kernel 


• Niacin 


content 


Grain or product 


'Amount in proauct 


rProportion of total 




: Percent 




: Micrograms 
per gram 




Percent 


V/heat 


• 100.0 




20.64 




100.0 


Patent flour 


I 63.0 




6.86 




23.48 


First clear flour 


7.0 




17.13 




6.52 


Second clear flour 


4.5 




19.41 




4.73 


Red dog flour 


4.0 




31.11 




6.74 


Shorts 


12.3 




38.18 : 




25.54 


Bran 


9.0 




66.06 ! 




32.34 


Germ ; 


.2 




60.93 : 




.65 



Source: Compiled from data presented in The Nicotinic Acid Content of 
Cereal Products. By James M. Thomas, et al. Cereal Ghem., 
pages 173-180, March 1942. 



- 18 - 



Table 14.. - Niacin content of v;heat and other agricultural comnodities 

with protein and ash content conparisons (moisture-free basis) 



Coramodity 


: Niacin 


Protein 


: Ash 




. Micrograiii 








J per gram 


Percent 


Percent 


IVheat mix, spring 


1 23.37 


:* 15.97 


! 1.97 


Yi/heat mix, winter 


': U.97 


:* U.69 


't 1.72 


Barley 


': 17.01 


i 11.69 


: 

: 2.79 


Malted barley 


] 21.33 


i 11.86 


^ 2.42 


Oats 


] 8.07 


i 11.59 


4.11 


Rye 


10.8^ 


: 14.02 '. 


2.03 


Corn (yellow) , 


8.15 


] 8.76 1 


2.05 


Corn (Y\rhite) j 


8.22 


10. U ': 


1.56 


Soybeans , 


22 . 13 '. 


36.37 .' 


5.90 


Rice (unhulled) '. 


12.74. i 


6.7.; .' 


5.41 


Rice (brown) ', 


9.06 ! 


8.54 ': 


1.18 


Rice (polished) '. 


5.27 :' 


8.23 ': 


1.02 


Peanuts • 








Raw ', 


106.03 ': 


28,17 :' 


2.46 


Roas-ced . 


110.51 J* 


26.74 ': 


2,43 



Compiled from data presented in The Nicotinic Acid Content of Cereal 
lllthllh ^' ^^""^^ ^'^' ^^"""^^^ ®^ ^^- ^^^^^1 Chem., pages 173-180, 



- 19 - 

PRODUCTION DEVELOPl'IENT 

Soft wheats were introduced into the United States by the colonists froin 
Western Europe in the early part of the seventeenth century and moved 
westv^rard viith the settlers. They were 'sown in Virginia as early as 1611 
and in Massachusetts soon after 1621, These v/heats carae largely from 
England, Netherlands, and Sweden. 

Wheat production in the Pacific Coast region began about 1770 with the 
introduction of Spanish wheats, mostly v:hite varieties, coming by way of 
the T^Test Indies and Mexico. These and later introductions of Tfhite wheats 
from Mexico, Chile and Australia account for the popularity and predomi- 
nance of white wheats in this region. 

Hard spring wheat of the common species v/as not generally grovm in the 
United States until after 1870. A fev/ grains of this v/heat, probably from 
Russia, vrere received in Canada in 1G4-2 by a man named Fife. This wheat, 
under the name of Fife, "vvas introduced into the United States from Canada 
about 1850. Millers objected to it because of its hardness, and accordingly 
it was discounted heavily on the markets until after 1870. The development 
of the middlings" purifier and the introduction in 1873 of the roller system 
of milling in Minneapolis made possible the efficient milling of this wheat. 
The use of purifiers and rolls soon became general. After 1878 the culti- 
vation of hard spring vrheat increased rapidly, and a?horttii;ie later it 'h^as 
selling at a premium. 

Hard I'/inter v/heat v^as introduced into the United States by Russian Mennonite 
ijmnigrants \iho settled near Nevrton, Kansas in 1873. This viheat vAich i^as 
brought from the Crimea became known as Turkey i/heat. It proved to be very 
vrell suited to the climate of Kansas, and its ability to yield vfell in that 
area soon caused it to be grovm on a large acreage. The Kansas millers a't 
first refused to buy Turkey wheat on account of its hardness but later ac- 
cepted it at a discount from^ the price of soft wheat. About the year 1886, 
mills were built at Newton, Halstead, and Iloundridge, Kansas, specifically 
for the purpose of using Turkey wheat. Not until about 1900, however, did 
the mills of Kansas begin to recognise its good milling qualities, and not 
until 1910 did it sell at a higher price at Kansas City than soft vfinter 
wheat, 3y 1914- hard v/intor im-jat ranked as one of the high quality'- bread 
Tifheats. 

Kubanka durum v^rheat was introduced into the United States from Russia by 
the United States Department of Agriculture, and Arnautka durum whuat by 
Russian settlers during the period 1898 to 1900. These soon proved to be 
high yielding wheats in the Great Plains, probably because of their resis- 
tance to stem rust, and were gro-vm principally in South Dakota, North pakota, 
and Minnesota. Millers objected to durum v^rheat at first, and it Yr:\s sold 
at a large discount. By 1911, hov/ever, it was selling only a fevr cents 
below hard red spring, and in recent years it has occasionally topped the 
latter. 



- 20 - 

In addition to the Improvement of the v/heat crop resulting from the intro- 
duction of the wheats referred to in the preceding paragraphs, further im- 
provements in the quality and yield of wheat have resulted from selection 
and hybridization. 

Through the selection, by leading farmers and seedsmen, of promising strains 
from the mixtures and natural hybrids in the field, many Important vfheats 
were developed early in the 19th century. Red May, which was selected from 
a field of vrhite -kerne led May of English origin, and Fultz, an important 
soft red .winter wheat and a descendent of a mixture of hybrid found in a 
field of the Lancaster (Mediterranean) variety, are two early typical examples, 
Some of the varieties which this method has developed more recently are 
Kanred, Trumbull, Fulhio, Mindum, and Blackhull. 

Hybridization, or selection from tiie progeny of artificial crosses, dates 
from about 1S70 and has opened the way for further improvements in wheat 
varieties. Scientific methods are now available for studying and improving 
the inheritance in wheat for color of kernel, a^medness, date of maturity, 
winter hardiness, disease reactions, and quality characters, i.e., protein 
content and baking strength. Future improvement in wheat from hybridisation 
research is very probable. Some of the more prominent varieties developed 
in the United States as a result of hybridization are Fulcaster, Ceres, 
Thatcher, and Tenmarq. 



COmffiRCIAL TYPES 

For purposes of commercial usage, which is principally that of food, vfheat 
in the United States is classified as follov;s: Hard Red Spring, Durum, Red 
Durum, Hard Red Tfinter, Soft Red Winter, TThite, and Minced liYheat. The species 
of the Durum and Red Durum classes are indicated by their names. The Hard 
Red Spring and Hard Red Winter classes are entirely of the common species, 
but the Soft Red ITinter and 'vYhite classes include varieties both of the 
common and club species. Durum and Red Durum are very hard in kernel tex- 
ture j Hard Red Spring and Hard Red ITinter range from semi -hard to hard- 
Soft Red I'Jinter ranges from soft to semi -hard j and ?/hite, from soft to hard. 

lITheat is primarily produced for consumption as food; therefore, the 
suitability of each class for particular food uses is of interest. H.ard Red 
Spring and Hard Red Vlinter vdieats are especially suited for the maJcing of 
bread floiir. These tT;o wheats contain a relatively large quantity of strong 
elastic gluten - an essential element in making a bread that meets the pub- 
lic favor in the United States, Durum wheat is used for making semolina that 
is especially suited for the manufacture of macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli, 
and other alimentary pastes. Red Durum is used to some extent in the manu- 
facture of breakfast food but is principally used for poultry and stock 
feed. Soft Red "iTinter and Vfiiite wheat flour, both usually low in protein 
content, are especially suited for making pastry, crackers, biscuits, cakes, 
and similar products. 



- 21 - 



PRODUCTION AREAS AND Vi\RIETY DISTRIBUTION 

Wieat is grown commercially in most of the 43 states of the Union (see 
figure 2) so it is not surprising that the number of varieties of vfheat 
groYJTL in the United States is very large. In 194-1 there were 329 registered 
varieties. This registration is made under a cooperative agreement betvreen 
the Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, and 
the American Society of Agronony. Many of these varieties, hovrever, are 
not grown commercially at the present time. Only approximately 120 of them 
are grown on 10,000 acres or raore. In 1939 only 12 irere grovm on more than 
a million acres. 

The production of wheat is generally limited to areas having a frost-free 
period of 90 days or m.ore and, except vfhere irrigation is possible, an 
annual precipitation betvreen 12 and 45 inches. Its most extensive produc- 
tion is in areas having a precipitation of airaroxiniately 30 inches. It 
is grovm in areas of India, however, vrliere the annual rainfall is 60 inches 
or more and in areas of Australia and in the Big Bend area of ITashington 
State vj"here the rainfall is no greater than 10 inches, because related 
factors such as length of grov:ing season, timeliness of rainfall, tempera- 
ture, soil, and economic considerations are favorable. 

In areas where it can be grown, winter (seeded in fall for harvest in early 
sumraer) irfheat will usually produce higher yields than spring wheat, Yfinter 
wheat varieties require a period of lo~'»/ temperatures or short days or both 
in order to head, and as neither of these conditions is found in the tropi- 
cal and subtropical regions, spring iTheat varieties (seeded in the fall or 
early w"inter) are grown in these areas. Spring wheats are also produced in 
regions i/here winter temperatures are too severe for v;inter i:heat to survive. 

Hard Red Spring ifheat is grown principally in the North Central States (see 
figure 3). In this region ivinters are too severe for v^inter wheat. The 
states leading in its production are North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, 
and Montana, The leading varieties are Thatcher, Marquis, Ceres, and Rev/ard. 
Thatcher is rapidly replacing Marquis and Ceres in a large part of this area 
because of the fact that it is very resistant to stem rust vrfiile Ceres and 
Marquis are rather susceptible. According to the 1939 Census of acreage of 
v/heat varieties by the U, S, Department of Agriculture, Hard Red Spring 
wheat occupies approximately 20,9 percent of the wheat acreage in the United 
States. 

Durum "vJ-heat is grown in the north central part of the Great plains with ap- 
proximately 95 percent of the United States production in North Dakota, 
South Dakota, and Minnesota, The leading varieties of Durum v/heat are 
Mindum, Kubanka, and Pentad. Mindum and Kubanka are of the comjnercial class 
Durum, whereas Pentad is of the Red Durum. The latter is grovm especially 
in South Dakota because of its high yield, in spite of the fact that it 
usually sells for a much lov;er price than other varieities. Durum acreage, 
according to the 1939 acreage census, accounts for approximately 5.3 percent 
of the total acreage of the United States, 



- 22 - 



Hard Red Winter Y/heat is grown principally in the central portion of the 
Great Plains. This region has moderately cold, dry "winters with little, 
or at best, uncertain sno;/ cover. The leading states in production are 
Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Texas, and Colorado, Hard Red Vfinter ivheat 
is also gro^m to some extent throughout the northern part of the United 
States west of the Appalachian Mountains. The leading varieties are Turkey, 
Blackhull, Tenmarq, Kanred, Cheyenne, lobred, and Nebred. Tenmarq, Cheyenne, 
lobred, and Nebred are increasing in popularity, while Kanred is becoming 
less popular. Approximately /{^7.6 percent of the United States wheat acreage 
in 1939 was of Hard Red "ITinter vfheat. 

Soft Red "liTinter wheat is grovm principally in the eastern half of the United 
States, This region is characterized by usually ample but seldom excessive 
rainfall and by moderately cold but no severe winters. Leading states in 
its production are Ohio, Missouri, Indiana, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and 
Kansas. The leading varieties are Fultz, Trumbull, Fulcaster, Kawvale, Ful- 
hio, Leap, Red May, Nittany, and Currell, Red May has been decreasing in 
popularity the past fe^J years, while the acreages of Kai/vale and Fulhio 
have increased rapidly during this time, Kavrvale is a little too hard to 
be good soft wheat, and its flour is unsatisfactory for making many of the- 
products usually made from soft wheats. The Soft Red YiTinter wheat acreage 
in 1939 accounted for 19.6 percent of the total v^rheat acreage in the United 
States, 

White wheat is grovm chiefly in the far western states. Leading states in 
its production are Washington, California, Oregon, Idaho, and Michigan, 
The leading varieties of Yilhite Virheat are Baart, Federation, Dawson, Rex, 
Goldcoin, and White Federation, None of the club v/hite wheats are grown on 
a sufficiently large acreage to be included among the leaaing lifhite wheat 
varieties. The leading varieties of club vfheat are Eym&r, Albit, and 
Hybrid 128, In 1939 Wnite wheat varieties were grovm on 6,6 percent of the 
wheat acreage in the United States. 



HARVESTING DATES AIvID IviETHODS 

Because of its widely distributed areas of production extending to every 
continent on the globe, wheat is harvested in unbroken continuity through- 
out the year, Folloi/ing are the approximate harvest months for the various 
wheat producing areas: 

Januarj^ .... Argentina, Uruguay, Chile^ and New" Zealand 
February ... Upper Eg^pt and Southern India 

March Egj'-pt, Tripoli, and India 

April India, Lower Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Arabia, Syria, Cyprus, 

Mexicoj.and Southern Morocco 
May *....,.. Algeria, Tunis, Morocco, Central and Southern Asia, 

Palestine, and United States - South Carolina, Georgia, 

Alabama, and Louisiana 




Figvire 2. - Distribution of the total wheat acreage 
in the United States in 1939. Each dot represents 
5,000 acres. Estimated area, 63,911,000 acres. 








'Figure 3. - Distribution of itheat classes in 1939. Each dot represents 2,000 acres. 
Estimated areas: hard red spring 13,330,648, durum and red durum 3,372,4-05, hard 
red T»inter 30,456,919, soft red winter 12,552,634, white 4,198,394, and club (some 
red and some white kemeled - are also included in the soft red winter and white 
wheat acreages, respectively) 411,282 acres. 



- 23 - 

June Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, Asia Minor, 

Central China, Southern France, and United States - ■ 
North Carolina, Georgda, Arkansas, Texas, Virginia, 
Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Oklahoma, 
Missouri, and Kansas 

July France, Austria, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Yugo- 
slavia, Switzerland, Southern Russia, North China, 
Japan, Chosen, Southern Germany, and United States - 
NeviT York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, and 
Oregon 

August Southern Canada, Central Russia, Great Britain, 

Germany, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Poland, Manchuria, 
and United States - Minnesota, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, Montana, Oregon, and Washington 

September ... Sv\reden, Norway, Finland, Northern Russia, Canada, 

Siberia, and United States - North Dakota and Montana 

October Northern Scandinavia, Northern Russia, Northern Canada, 

and Alaska 

November .... Peru, Brazil and Northern Argentina 

December .... Argentina, Australia, and South Africa 

In the United States v\rheat is usually harvested with a combine, a binder, 
or a header. The combine cuts and threshes in one operation, vdiereas the 
binder or header merely cuts the grain and the threshing is performed vfith 
a stationary thresher. The use of the combine causes the time of harvest- 
ing wheat to be from 7 to 11+ days later than the normal tirae for binder 
cutting. This is necessary to allovj" the grain to become thoroughly ripened 
and the moisture content to be reduced to a point (L4 percent or less) 
v\rhere the threshed grain can be stored safely. According to the best data 
available (see table 15), of the 1938 total v/heat acreage in the United 
States, 4-9 percent was harvested with the combine, 4-7 percent v>fith the binder, 
and 4- percent by all other methods. Since 193S the percentage harvested by 
the combine undoubtedly has greatly increased because of the introduction 
of the small or all-crop type of combine which can be used to advantage on 
small farms. 

In general, the type of farming practiced within an area influences to a 
large extent the method of harvesting wheat used. In states "v/here extensive 
wheat raising is practiced the combine is nearly alvfays used because of it"S 
lo^Ter harvesting costs j however, in states of diversified farming, v/here 
stravf may be valuable for bedding and feeding livestock, the binder-thresher 
method of harvesting predominates. 



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- 25 - 



RELATIVE MPORTANCE OF THE WIEAT CROP 

YUheat is one of the most mportant crops of the United States. It is ira- 
portant because (a) many farmers grow it, (b) a large acreage of land is 
annually devoted to it, (c) it constitutes an important part of our domes- 
tic commerce, (d) it normally contributes an important part of the value 
of our agricultural exnorts, and most important of all, (e) it is the 
national bread crop. 

It is primarily a cash crop and in some areas is almost the only source of 
cash farm income, Y^Tieat is grown on about one-third, or approximately 
2 million, of the farms of the United States. In the ?restern edge of the 
Great Plains region and in the Pacific Northwest there are areas in v.liich 
more than 50 percent of the total cultivated land is given over to imeat. 
Specialization of Yfheat growing is in many instances due to climatic condi- 
tions vfhich prevent the production of other crops. Vifhere such conditions 
prevail the development of market outlets for wheat is of vital importance 
to the vfelfare of the farmer. 

The importance of wheat in the commercial life of the nation is indicated 
by the fact that normally it is fourth in farm value among all field crops 
and second in amount of cash income to farmers. 

The average farm value of v-rheat from 1910 to 1914- was 633 million dollars 
annually. The higher prices resulting from '.Torld Jar I raised the average 
annual value in the 1915-19 period to 1,4-12 million dollars. The estimated 
farm value of the 194-1 crop was 895 million dollars. The cash income from 
wheat to the farmers in these same periods was 520 million, 1, 155 million, 
and 702 million dollars, respectively. 

Table 16 shows the farm value of v/heat and various other crops, and table 17 
the cash income from, these croDS, 



- 26 - 



Table 16. - Farm value of various crops, 1937-194-1 



Commodity 


' 1937 


: 1938 


: 1939 


: 1940 


' 1/ 1941 




! $1,000 


! $1,000 


! $1,000 


: $1,000 


; $1,000 


Wheat 


= 8^2,8-43 


'• 522,639 


= 519,651 


' 554,168 


'• 894,783 


Corn, all 


' 1,372,^68 


' 1,247,010 


• 1,476,300 


'■ 1,520,047 


• 2,012,651- 


Oats 


' 350,003 


'• 253,455 


• 290,922 


■ 377,171 


' 484,070 


Barley 


'■ 119,075 


' 92,609 


• 110, 826 


• 122,953 


= 184,244 


Rye 


3^,172 


• 18,783 


' 17,163 


■ 17,094 


= 24,866 


Buckvfheat 


' ^,525 


'• 3,619 


• 3,560 


'• 3,495 


' 4, 103 


Flaxseed 


13,222 


• 12,965 


'' 29,492 


'■ U3,li,5 


= 56,298 


Rice 


35,132 


= 33,630 


' 39,095 


' 44,208 


= 72,476 


Grain Sorghums 


47,656 


= 38,932 


• 46,970 


• 61,897 


= 83,710 


Cotton Lint 


" 796,179 ' 


' 513,638 


= 536,923 


■ 621,380 


= 903,257 


Cottonseed 


164,375 


= 115,695 


' 111,259 


■ 121,578 


= 223,158 


Tobacco 


' 319,465 


■ 269,184 


' 288,171 


234,233 


= 331,934 


Potatoes 


208,785 


' 208,835 


= 251,586 


203,345 


' 275,578 


Peanuts 


63,137 


■ 67,434 


58,728 


83,769 


106,470 


Hay, all = 


718,973 


= 618,676 


= 671,329 


718,999 


887,934 


Soybeans 2/ " 


38,178 


42,376 


74,299 = 


69,597 = 


165,139 


Other , ~ ' 


980,117 


870,530 


886,100 


977,499 


1,023,342 


Total, ] 
66 crops [ 


6,108,305 ' 


4,930,010 : 


5,412,374 • 


5,775,228 - 


7,739,013 



1/ Preliminary. 
2/ For beans only. 



Source: Farm Production, Farm Disposition and Value of Principal Crops, 
April 1940, 1941, and 1942. Bur. Agr. Econ., U. S. Dept. Agr. 



- 27 - 



Table 17. - Cash fami income in the United States for calendar years 1937-/+1 



Commodity 


; 1937 


; 1938 


; 1939 


• 1/ 1940 


; 1/ 1941 


Crops 


: $1, 000 


: $1,000 


: ^1,000 


: $1,000 


: $1,000 


Wheat 


'. 604,910 


! 400,538 


! 432,586 


! 427,541 


; 702,039 


Corn 


! 222,693 


'. 268,516 


! 318,931 


! 387,932 


'. 351,271 


Oats 


[ 67,022 


: 42,850 


. 45,724 


[ 57,296 


! 84,951 


Barley 


! 42,673 


; 38,259 


. 39,720 


41,270 


56,027 


Rye 


; 19,856 


: 8,582 


: 9,016 


'. 8,182 


'. 13,415 


BuckT/vheat 


1,941 


1,467 


! 1,530 


! 1,277 


1,220 


Flaxseed 


13,062 


; 12,067 


; 26,426 


; 34,869 


'. 58,107 


Rice 


, 32,607 


: 34,041 


\ 31,503 


; 39,902 


'. 52,855 


Grain Sorghums 


8,332 


; 7,504 


'. 6,824 


: 8,857 


'. U,475 


Cotton Lint 


. 769,890 


: 558,303 


: 550,046 


. 563,647 


. 937,234 


Cottonseed 


113,399 


[ 88,670 


'. 76,818 


[ 82,398 


'. 170,185 


Tobacco 


. 320,518 


; 294,035 


; 271,061 


. 241,404 


! 324,872 


Potatoes 


. 183,736 


; 127,590 


156,339 


. 164,053 


; 152, 38Z 


Hay 


. 93,897 


. 60,795 


66,021 


75,688 


'. 79,760 


Soybeans 


. 31,073 


. 34,205 


50,833 


42,813 


. 113,305 


Other 


.1,422,454 . 


.1,212,595 . 


.1,282,299 


. 1,332,396 


. 1,682,225 


Total crops ; 


3,948,063 , 


-3,190,017 '' 


0,365,677 


3,509,525 


4,794,323 


Livestock and , 












livestock 












products ; 


4,902,089 : 


.4,495,969 '. 


4,511,308 ; 


4,869,891 ! 


6,449,799 


Government ; 












payments • 


366,899 '-. 


482,221 ': 


807,065 ! 


765,799 i 


585,672 


Grand total ', 


9,217,051 J 


8,168,207 J 


8,684,050 J 


9,145,215 ! 


11,829,794 



1/ Preliminary. 



Source: Cash Farm Income and Government Payments. February 26, 1942, and 
Gross Farm Income, June 1942. Bur. Agr. Econ., U. S. Dept. Agr. 



28 - 



GRADES AND PRICES 

Under official grain standards of the United States wheat is divided into 
classes according to botanical species, habit of growth, color, or variety* 
into subclasses according to kernel texture or area of production; and into 
numerical grades according to physical condition and purity. The classes, 
7 in number, are as follows: Hai'd Red Spring, Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red 
Winter, Soft Red Vifinter, lilfhite, and Mixed, The Hard Red Spring class is 
subdivided into the subclasses Dark Northern Spring, Northern Spring, and 
Red Spring. The Durum class is subdivided into the subclasses Hard Amber 
Durum, Amber Durum, and Durum, The Red Durum class has no subdivision. 
The Hard Red Winter class is subdivided into the subclasses Dark Hard Winter, 
Hard Vifinter, and Yellow Hard Yfinter, The Soft Red T/inter class is subdivided 
into the subclasses Red Winter and Western Red, The V/hite class is sub- 
divided into the subclasses Hard V/hite, Soft White, Vifhite Club, and V^Testern 
White, Mixed wheats are of three categories according to the composition 
of the mixture. Mixed Vi/heat, Ajriber Mixed Durum, and Mixed Durum. 

The grades are subdivisions of the subclasses, or of the classes for which 
there are no subclasses, and except in the case of the subclasses of the 
Hard Red Spring class are six in number, namely. No, 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4^ 
No, 5, and Sample Grade. For the Hard Red Spring subclasses there are seven 
grades consisting of the preceding and one called No. 1 Heavy, These 
grades are based on definite limitations for test v/eight per bushel, total 
content of foreign material other than dockage, content of matter other than 
cereal grains, total content of wheats of other classes, content of wheats 
of special classes, content of broken and shrunken kernels, presence or 
absence of foreign odors, presence or absence of inseparable stones and 
cinders, temperature condition of the wheat, and v/hether or not it is of 
distinctly low quality. 

In addition to giving wheat a numerical grade designation, the standards 
also provide for special grade designations, such as "Dockage - ^," "Smut 
Dockage - ^," "Light Smutty," "Smutty," "Tough," "Light Garlicky," "Gar- 
licky," "TiTeevily," "Ergoty," "Limed," "Washed," "Sulphured," etc., to be 
affixed to the numerical grade when the wheat contains 1 percent or more 
of readily separable foreign material, or is smutty, or contains moisture 
in excess of I4. percent for some classes and 14..5 percent for other classes, 
garlic, live weevils and/or other insects injurious to stored grain, ergot 
in excess of 0.3 percent, or when it has been scoured, Ijjned, washed, sul- 
phured, or otherwise treated in a manner so that its true quality is not 
reflected by the numerical grade designation alone. 

These standards further provide that each determination of moisture content, 
test weight, and the other factors specified in the numerical grade require- 
ments shall be upon the basis of the grain after the removal of dockage, 
and that the determination of temperature, odor, garlic, and live weevils 
or other insects injurious to stored grain shall be on the basis of the 
grain including the dockage. 



- 29 - 

The percentages by classes of total market receipts of vrtieat, for the crop- 
year period 1933-37 and the crop years 1938 and 1939^ falling into the 
various grades are shovm in table 18. 

Price data for some of the principal market grades at a fevj- of the ijirportant 
terminal markets are presented in table 19. Complete data showing price 
differentials between all classes, grades, and markets are not readily 
available, but in general it may be stated that Red Durum class. Western Red 
and Western V/hite subclasses, and No. 5 and Sample grades of all subclasses 
are the cheapest wheats. Also, that the areas in which the lovrest wheat 
prices prevail are the surplus vmeat producing sections of the Pacific north- 
west, the Rocky Mountain States, and the Southwest Great Plains, 

In the hard wheat classes the highest prices are nearly alvrays paid for 
wheats of highest protein content, while in the soft vfheat classes highest 
prices are paid for softness of texture, a quality associated Vifith low 
protein content. Ordinarily there is much less range in the protein content 
of soft wheats than of hard wheats. Protein content does not enter into 
grade determination, although it is an im.portant determinant of milling value, 



PRODUCTION, SUPPLY, Alffl DISTRIBUTION 

World production of wheat (excluding China, Manchuria, and the Union of 
Soviet Socialist Republics) has amounted in recent years to roughly 4 billion 
bushels annually (see table 20). Of this amount, the United States on the 
average (1930-39) produced approximately 74-8 million bushels (see table 21), 
United States production of ¥dieat by classes is shown in tabic 22. 

The annual supply and distribution of v/heat in the United States from 1930 
to 194-2 are shown in table 23. During this period annual disappearance of 
wheat for domestic purposes remained fairly constant, ranging only from 627 
to 754 million bushels, whereas production ranged from 526 to 981 million 
bushels, and carry-over from a low of S3 m.illion on July 1, 1937, to an all- 
time high of 627 million bushels on July 1, 1942. Exports ranged from 7 to 
126 million bushels. These fluctuations naturally result in wide variations 
in supply. 

The United States has been a producer of surplus wheat since about IS60. 
Formerly its surplus vras largely absorbed through exportations to foreign 
countries, and the avidity with which this surplus was absorbed, in a large 
measure, determined the prosperity of the United States farmer. Table 24 
shows the wheat exports of the United States and other principal vriieat ex- 
porting countries. Since about 1932, hoYJ-ever, exports have dwindled to a 
negligible quantity, while production, despite governmental efforts to re- 
duce acreage, has not declined accordingly. The ensuing accumulating surplus 
has become burdensome, climaxed by a crop carry-over in 1942 of approximately 
627 million bushels, almost double that of any previous year. 



- 30 - 



Table 18. - Percentages of vrheat grades by classes, average 1933-37 and annual 
1938 and 1939, based on receipt inspections by licensed inspectors. 
All U. S. inspection points. 



Class and year begin- 
ning July 


• Prop 


ortion of total 


inspecte 


i, grade 


1 as- 


: Quantity 
: inspected 


; No. 1 


; No. 2 


• 

; No. 3 


1 No. 4 


; No. 5 


'Sample 




'Percent 


•percent 


•percent 


•percent 


•percent 


•percent 


* 1000 bus. 


Hard Red Spring: 
















1933-37 average 


• 40.5 


• 12.2 


• 14.3 


'' B.5 


• 7.8 


• 16.7 


• 74,565 


1938 


• 38.4 


* 16.4 


• 23.1 


' 13.6 


• 6.8 


• 1.7 


• 127,790 


1939 


; 4^.4 


; 17.5 


; 26.4 


; 8.8 


; 2.5 


! -^ 


; 135,051 


Durum: 
















1933-37 average 


! 30.8 


! 33.5 


! 13.3 


'. 10.3 


! 8.6 


! 3.5 


.* 13,310 


1938 


: 66.1 


! 25.2 


. 6.8 


. 1.2 


! .3 


.4 


. 26,534 


1939 


! 38.2 


.' 50.8 


! 9.1 


! 1.4 


:' -2 


: -3 


. 22,696 


Red Durum: 
















1934.-37 average 


: 19.4 


: 44.1 


\ 24.6 


: 7.9 


: 1.2 


: 2.8 


': 1,111 


1938 


: 52.0 


: 29.5 


: 10.0 


: 3.8 


: 2.5 


: 2.2 


: 7,562 


1939 


: 55.5 


: 37.9 


: 5.2 


: .0 


: .1 


: .7 


: 6,370 


Hard Red Winter: 
















1933-37 average 


' 4-1.3 


'' 34.6 


■ 12.7 


' 5.5 


'' 3.3 


• 2.6 


' 248,542 


1938 


■ 29.3 


'' 34.7 


• 20.8 


■ 10.1 


' 3.5 


■ 1.6 


440,512. 


1939 


: 33.9 


. 39.8 


■ 20.5 


: 3.4 


: .4 


; 2.0 


; 288,813 


Soft Red ViTinter: 
















1933-37 average ; 


20.8 . 


37.3 . 


21.0 


8.9 : 


5.9 : 


6.1 \ 


80,757 


1938 


U.l I 


39.4 ' 


22.7 i 


10.2 : 


7.5 : 


6.1 : 


85,410 


1939 : 


7.0 : 


47.1 : 


33.4 ; 


6.0 : 


2.2 : 


4.3 : 


77,258 


White : = 
















1933-37 average ' 


32.2 = 


52.4 * 


11.5 '' 


2.0 ' 


.9 ' 


1.0 ' 


62,376 


1938 ' 


44.4 • 


43.8 = 


9.1 '' 


1.7 • 


.4 ' 


.6 • 


71, 028 


1939 ; 


61.0 = 


34.1 ; 


3.9 ; 


.4 ; 


.1 ; 


.5 ; 


52,639 


Mixed: 
















1933-37 average 


31.7 ; 


37.7 '. 


16.4 '. 


6.4 .' 


4.4 '. 


3.4 '. 


35,188 


1938 ; 


21.2 . 


34.1 .' 


28.3 . 


9.1 '. 


3.3 . 


4.0 . 


40,790 


1939 ; 


22.3 *: 


50.1 . 


21.4 : 


2.6 . 


•5 : 


3.1 i 


30,093 


Total: : 
















1933-37 average : 


35.9 : 


34.1 : 


14.4 : 


6.2 : 


4.3 : 


5.1 : 


1/515,849 


1938 : 


31.5 : 


32.7 : 


20.2 : 


9.5 : 


4.0 : 


2.1 : 


"799,626 


1939 : 


35.0 : 


36.2 : 


21.4 : 


4.5 : 


1.1 : 


l.S : 


613,420 



1/ Total of 5-year averages for each class, except for Red Durum class, v;-hich 
is 4-year average. 

Source: Compiled from reports of Agr. Market. Adm., U. S. Dept. Agr. 



- 31 - 

Table 19. - Average prices of wheat per bushel, selected grades, and markets 
1910-^1 





•No.l North- 


'-_ No. 2 Am- 




*No.2 Hard 








Year be- 


:ern Spring 


Jber Durum 


iNo.2 Red 


Winter 


iNo.2 Hard 


:No.2Hard 


: Imported 


ginning 


: Minne- 


: Minne- 


: Winter 


• Kansas 


: Vi/'inter 


: Y/inter 


; Liverpool 


July 


. apolis 


: apolis 


.St. Louis 


: City 


. Chicago 


:New York 


: 1/ 




: Cents 


: Cents 


: Cents 


: Cents 


: Cents 


: Cents 


: Cents 


1910 


: 105 


! 87 


99 


98 


! 100 


! 104 


[ 107 


1911 


! 107 


: 98 


: 94 


97 


: 94 


; 110 


; 112 


1912 


'. 87 


! 85 


: 105 


! 88 


94 


: 103 


1 114 


1913 


: 88 


: 83 


! 89 


: 84 


! 89 


: 99 


106 


191^ 


; 120 


122 


'. 110 


! 105 


! Ill 


: 136 


: 157 


1915 


; 109 


[ 104 


! 120 


: 119 


: 114 


! 128 


; 175 


1916 


: 176 


; 180 


: 163 


! 171 


'. 157 


; 208 


224 


1917 


[ 220 


; 218 


223 


! 252 


223 


°. 240 


; 235 


1918 


',2/ 236 


; 222 


! 223 


219 


! 234 


! 237 


240 


1919 


300 


'. 249 


! 230 


242 


! 227 


'. 255 


: 215 


1920 


; 201 


[ 200 


[ 213 


! 183 


: 216 


! 210 


! 223 


1921 


us 


: 119 


! 127 


'. 120 


! 128 


: 135 


\ 151 


1922 


. 126 


107 


; 121 


: 113 


: 113 


: 131 


. 144 


1923 


124 


; 106 


! 107 


! 105 - 


106 


121 


3/ 127 


192^ 


. 158 


: 156 . 


159 


! 135 


. 139 


[ 170 


; 181 


1925 


. 165 


. U4 


169 


: 163 . 


: 161 . 


; 180 


. 176 


1926 : 


. 151 


155 


! 138 


'. 135 


140 


. 156 . 


163 


1927 


141 : 


132 


: 149 


: 135 


', 138 


. 153 


152 


1928 


126 ; 


. 113 


. 139 


; 112 


. 117 


. 131 . 


228 


1929 


130 


. 119 


', 130 


; 120 


130 


; 126 


129 


1930 ; 


82 


78 . 


83 


: 76 


84 


.4/ 92 


80 


1931 ; 


71 ; 


76 ' 


52 


: 47 . 


53 . 


r 68 , 


59 


1932 ; 


61 : 


58 . 


55 


'. 51 : 


53 . 


69 ; 


54 


1933 : 


91 ; 


103 ; 


94 


'. ss '. 


94 ; 


106 


68 


193^ : 


116 ; 


.5/ 138 : 


94 


98 : 


102 ; 


119 '. 


81 


1935 : 


126 ; 


113 . 


95 


. 105 : 


104 '. 


125 ; 


90 


1936 : 


147 : 


157 : 


111 


121 ! 


117 ; 


143 . 


126 


1937 : 


128 ; 


107 '. 


113 


Ill : 


118 ; 


116 : 


124 


1938 ; 


79 : 


72 : 


70 


70 '. 


70 ! 


87 : 


70 


1939 : 


97 '. 


92 : 


75 


74 1 


78 '. 


112 ; 


¥ 


19/.0 ; 


90 : 


92 : 


82 


82 : 


85 '. 


106 '. 




1941 '. 


110 ! 


116 : 


110 .' 


112 '. 


109 '. 


139 : 





1/ 1910-25, imported Red wheat; 1926 to date, average of all parcels at Liverpool 

2/ No. 1 Dark Northern Spring beginning 1918. 

3/ Average for 11 months. 

4/ Average for 6 months. 

5/ Hard Amber Durum beginning 1934. 

Z/ Market closed September, 1939. 

Source: U. S. Dept. Agr., Agricultural Statistics. 



- 32 - 



Table 20. - World production of wheat excluding the Union of Soviet Socialist 
Republics, China, and Manchuria, 193'4-42 1/ 



Year be- 
ginning 
July 


; U. S. 


j Canada 


[Argentina 


.Australia 


, Europe 
'. (exc. 
; U.S.S.R.) 


: All 

1 others 

; 2/ 


' './or Id 

; 2/ 




[ Million 
1 bushels 


1 Million 
[ bushels 


1 Million 
1 bushels 


', Llillion 
[ bushels 


[ Million 
[ bushels 


[ Million 
[ bushels 


[ Million 
[ bushels 


193^ 


! 526 


' 276 [ 


241 


; 133 


; 1548 


! 837 


; 3561 


1935 


[ 626 


; 282 


. 141 


! 144 . 


' 1576 [ 


832 J 


' 3602 


1936 


627 


■ 219 ! 


250 


i 151 


: 1481 , 


' 857 


! 3585 


1937 


, 876 


I ^^° \ 


208 ; 


187 


. 1539 \ 


889 . 


[ 3879 


1938 


', 932 


! 360 : 


379 ! 


155 : 


1848 ! 


962 : 


4636 


1939 , 


. 751 ] 


521 : 


131 : 


210 ' 


1694 ; 


973 ! 


4280 


19-40 : 


813 ; 


540 \ 


299 I 


83 , 


1300 l 


968 \ 


4003 


19a 3/1 


943 : 


312 J 


224 ! 


167 : 


1420 \ 


914 ; 


3980 


1942 3/; 


981 [ 


608 J 


200 ; 


145 : 


1380 : 


896 [ 


4210 



1/ Data are in many instances unoificial forecasts, 
2/ Except U.S.S.R., China, and Manchuria. 
3/ Pr e limi nary , 



Source: Compiled from official sources. 



- 3-3 - 

Table 21. - Harvested acreage, yield per acre, and production of all TAteat in the 
United States by states, average 1930-39, annual 1941 and 194-2 





• Acre 


age harvested 


• Yield per 


acre 




Product 


ion 


State 




















•Average 
•'1930-39 


i 1941 ; 


1^42 


•Average 
: 1930-39 


• 

': 1941 


• 

': 1942 


: Average : 
•1930-39- ^^^-^ 


': 1942 




: Thousand acres 




Bushels 


: Thousand bus 


he Is 


Maine 


: 5 


: 2: 


2 


: 20.0 


: 18.0 


: 20.0 


: 93 


: 36 


: 40 


N. Y. 


: 262 


: 296: 


281 


: 21.7 


: 22.5 


: 26.9 


: 5,727 


: 6,646 


: 7,559 


N. J. 


: 55 


: 55; 


50 


: 22.2 


: 22.0 


: 23.5 


: 1,230 


: 1.210 


: 1,175 


Pa. 


: 975 


867: 


806 


: 19.7 


: 19.5 


: 19.0 


: 19,232 


: 16,897 


: 15,301 


Ohio 


: 2,037 


: 1,959: 


1,724 


: 20.2 


: 25.0 


: 21.0 


: 40,958 


: 48, 978 


: 36,205 


Ind. 


: 1,730 


: 1,476: 


1,108 


: 17.5 


: 23.5 


: 12.5 


: 30,250 > 


: 34,665 


: 13,865 


111. 


: 2,064- 


: 1,716: 


981 


: 17.9 


: 20.0 


: 13.1 


: 37,118 


: 34,320 


: 12,818 


Mich. 


: 829 


i 741: 


681 


: 20.7 


: 22.0 


: 22.5 


: 16, 966 


: 16,236 


: 15,322 


Wis. 


! 109 


: 79: 


78 


r 16.4 


: 17.2 


: 22.0 


: 1,780 


: 1,362 


: 1,717 


Minn. 


! 1,65S 


: 1,471^ 


1,112 


: 13.3 


: 13.7 


: 20.8 


: 22, 132 


: 20, 104 


: 23,170 


Iowa 


: 421 


: 18 L- 


211 


: 17.4 


: 12.9 


: 22.5 


: 7,411 


: 2,341 


: 4,749 


Mo . 


: 1,934 


: 1,336: 


695 


: 14.4 


: 13.5 


: 13.0 


: 27, 653 


: 18, 036 


: 9,035 


N. Dak. 


: 7,392 


: 8,155: 


7,321 


: 8.1 


: 17.8 


: 20.5 


: 62,839 


:]44,799 


:]49,844 


S. Dak. . 


1 2,378 


: 2,864: 


2,630 


: 7.6. 


> 12.3 - 


17.2 


'20,956 


: 35,358 


: 45,274 


Nebr. 


' 3,211 


I 2,354: 


2,947 


• 13.0 


: 15.4 


: 23.7 


: 42, 962 


36,222 


: 69, 908 


Kans. 


• 10,768 


! 11,799: 


10,610 - 


11.8 


: 14.7 


: 19.5 


031,896 


073 332. 


206,775 


Del, 


84 


: 65: 


60 


• 17.4 


: 20.5 


! 21.5 


: 1,465 


: 1,332 


: 1,290 


Md, : 


427 


• 345: 


307 


! 19.1 


: 21.0 


: 19.5 


: 8,183 


: 7,245 


: 5,986 


Va. ! 


597 


: 511: 


470 


: 14.5 


: 15.0 


: 16.0 


: 8,633 


: 7,665 


: 7,520 


W. Va. J 


138 


! 105: 


94 


I 15.1 


: 15.5 


: 15.5 


: 2,073 


: 1,628 


: 1,457 


N. G. ! 


444 


: 474: 


517 


! 11.1 


: 15.5 


: 15.5 


: 4,903 


: 7,347 


: 8,014 


S. C. ; 


139 


! 244: 


307 ! 


10.0 


: 13.0 : 


11.0 ! 


1,366 


! 3,172: 


: 3,377 


Ga. : 


141 : 


191: 


241 ! 


9.3 


: 11.5 


: 10.5 


: 1,273 


: 2,196 


: 2,530 


Ky. : 


387 ! 


375: 


371 - 


U.O : 


19.0 


. 14.0 


: 5,456 


7,125 


: 5,194 


Tenn. : 


392 : 


361: 


361 : 


11.3 


: 15.0 


• 14.5 


; 4,388 ! 


5,415 


5,234 


Ala. : 


6 : 


7: 


13 i 


10.2 


: 13.0 


: 13.0 


57 : 


91 


: 169 


Miss. : 


: 


11: 


7 : 





: 27.0 


: 23.0 





297 


161 


Ark. : 


61 


30: 


22 : 


9.3 : 


10.5 


11.0 : 


561 


■ 315 


242 


Okla. : 


4,046 ! 


4, 543: 


3,477 : 


11.6 


: 10.7 . 


16.5 : 


47,981 


48,610 ; 


57,370 


Tex. : 


3,129 : 


2,614: 


2,875 : 


9.5 


: 10.4 


• 16.5 • 


31,360 i 


27,186 


=47,438 


Mont . : 


3,236 : 


3,703: 


3,267 : 


9.9 


: 18.4 


22.6 


33,619 : 


68,239 


=73,783 


Idaho : 


1, 047 : 


954: 


795 : 


23.0 


1 29.2 


26.1 


24,222 


27,850 


20,770 


Wyo. : 


209 : 


236: 


202 : 


10.8 : 


20.4 


21.2 : 


2,300 : 


4,805 


■ 4,288 


Colo. : 


991 : 


1,368: 


1,269 : 


11.9 


: 18.3 : 


21.9 ; 


12,186 : 


25,036 : 


27,848 


N. Mex. : 


252 : 


173: 


278 : 


9.6 


: 15.8 : 


17.3 : 


2,742 : 


2,735 


4,813 


Ariz. : 


39 : 


27: 


23 : 


23.0 


r 14.5 : 


25.0 : 


QSe : 


392 : 


575 


Utah : 


257 : 


266: 


227 : 


20.1 : 


26.4 : 


22.1 : 


5,207 : 


7,027 


5,010 


Ner. : 


16 : 


18: 


17 : 


24.8 . 


27.3 : 


28.5 : 


385 : 


491 : 


484 


Wash. : 


2,184 : 


2,098: 


1,777 : 


20.4 : 


29.1 : 


31.1 : 


44,362 : 


61, 142 : 


55, U8 


Oreg. : 


938 : 


820: 


714 : 


19.8 : 


28.7 : 


27.9 : 


18,620 : 


23,538 : 


19,953 


Calif. 


755 : 


752: 


536 : 


18.5 : 


15.5 : 


18.5 : 


14,136 : 


11,656 : 


9,916 


U. S. : 


55,743 : 


55,642:49,464 : 


13.3 : 


16.9 : 


19.8 { 


745,575 f 


^3,127 :< 


931,327 



Source: Compiled from official sources. 



- 3^ - 



Table 22-. - Tifheat production by classes for the United States, average 1930-39, 
annual' 1940, 1941, and 1942 



Year 


' Hard Red 
• Spring 


' Durum 1/ 


' Hard Red 
• Y/inter 


• Soft Red 
' "iTinter 


'. YJhite 
. (Yfinter 
5 and 
[ Spring) 


' Total 




1000 bus. 


. 1000 bus. 


: 1000 bus. 


: 1000 bus. 


: 1000 bus. 


1 1000 bus. 


Average : • 




! 










1930-39 \ 


111,749 


. 28,845 


' 311,785 


206,382 


88,746 - 


2/ 747,507 


Annual : ; 














1940 i 


159,720 • 


34,304 


329,797 


: 206,265 


83,135 : 


813,221 


1941 \ 


207,463 


42,660 < 


394,996 


209,398 i 


88,610 ': 


943,127 


1942 ': 


215,321 \ 


45,505 ': 


48^,791 ! 


160,285 : 


77,425 i 


981,327 



1/ Includes v^heat of the class Red Durum. 

^ This figure has been revised to 745,575, but the revisions by classes are 
not yet available. 



Source: Compiled from official sources. 



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- 36 - 



Table 2L,, "If/heat exports ^ including flo^or in terms of grain, of the principal 
exporting countries , averages 1925-29 and 1930-34, annual 1938 







Year beginning July 






Country 


' . Average 
: 1925-29 


Average 
! 1930-34 


\ 1938 




. Exports ! Imports 


. Exports 


. Imports 


. Exports 


. Imports 




: 1000 


: 1000 


: 1000 


• 1000 


: 1000 


! 1000 




: bushels 


: bushels 


• bushels 


: bushels 


r bushels 


: busjiels 


Canada 


; 307,640 


! 796 


! 220,491 


! 387 


! 159,885 


\ ' 2,439 


United States 1/ 


. 170,077 


. 15,815 


. 73,403 


. 15,591 


. 106,645 


271 


Argentina ~ 


. 159,377 


.2/ 10 


. 143,537 





. 116,116 





Australia 


. 83,268 


3 


. 128,363 


:> 


. 96,423 


1 


Hungary 


23,539 


S 


. 17,323 


1 


27,875 





U.S.S.R. 


. 17,731 





. 43,272 


. 1,503 . 








Yugoslavia 


. 10,822 


5 


. 5,421 


8 . 


5,352 . 





British India 


. 10,080 


. 8,636 


. 4,129 


. 3,075 


. 10,097 


. 7,243 


Rumania 


6,528 


79 


. 11,482 , 


15 . 


42,864 . 





Algeria 


5,153 


. 1,737 


. 11,022 


. 1,511 


. 3,546 


. 1,495 


Tunisia 


3,518 . 


669 


5,924 . 


864 . 


. 4,563 


592 


Bulgaria , 


1,869 . 


3/ 1,804 . 


4,919 . 


. 


2,633 





Poland 


. 1,407 


~ 4,820 . 


3,224 . 


509 . 


3,086 , 


109 


Chile . 


925 ; 


456 . 


703 ; 


956 , 


5 J 


. 1,053 


Total : 


801,934 \ 


34,838 \ 


678,013 : 


24,423 \ 


579,095 i 


13,263 



1/ Averages for 1925-29 and 1930-34 comprise exports of domestic wheat and 
all flour; imports comprise all virheat (including for milling in bond and 
export) and all flour, annual 1938, exports comprise domestic vz-heat and 
flour made from "wholly United States wheat"; im.ports for consumption 
comprise a "wheat unfit for human consumption", "wheat, other" (42 cents 
dutiable), and all vj^heat flour, except flour "im.ported in bond for export" 

2/ 3-year average, 

3/ 1 year only. 

Source: l^.Tieat Situation, WS-64, Feb. 1942, Bur. Agr. Econ., U. S. Dept. Agr, 



- 37 - 



As indicated by the data presented in table 25, wheat used for seed for 
the period 1930-/^l averaged 12 percent of the total domestic disappear- 
ance 5 feed (fed on farms where produced), averaged 16 percent^ food uses 
averaged 69 percent* and the balancing item averaged 3 percent. The quan- 
tity of wheat used for seed and food, or approximately 81 percent of the 
domestic disappearance, varies only slightly from year to year. Since ob- 
viously the use of v.^heat for seed and food may not be expanded to any con- 
siderable extent, if there is to be any increase in domestic utilization 
it must necessarily be accomplished by other means. Efforts are nov." being 
made through scientific research in the Northern and Y[estern Regional Re- 
search Laboratories to increase the industrial utilization of i/heat for 
assisting in the solution of the surplus problem, and also the United States 
Department of Agriculture is noiv (194-2) urging the feeding of more vriieat 
to livestock. 



Table 25. Distribution of the United States Domestic disappearance of 
wheat, 1930-^^1 







: Feed 




: Balancing 




Year 


i Food 


: (fed on farms 
•where produced) 


: Seed 


: item 
1/ 


: Total 




1000 bushels 


• 1000 bushels 
: 157,188 


' 1000 bushels 


• 1000 bushels 
20,893 


• 1000 bushels 


1930 


' ^88,170 


! 80,886 


: 747,137 


1931 


' ^85,381 


: 173,991 


! 80,049 


14,421 


753,842 


1932 


4-93,916 


: 124,912 


83,513 : 


17,241 


' 719,582 


1933 ' 


^50,088 


! 72,261 


77,832 : 


26,911 


627,092 


193^ ' 


^62,918 ' 


83,700 , ■ 


82,585 : 


27,043 : 


656,246 


1935 : 


471,707 


83,168 : 


87,555 : 


16,455 


658,885 


1936 : 


479,517 


88,272 


96,593 ' 


23,787 


688,169 


1937 : 


475,831 • 


112,860 : 


94,146 : 


20,130 ' 


703,017 


1938 ' 


486,531 


125,591 


75,454 ' 


35, a"? ' 


722,993 


1939 : 


• 485,581 


91,487 : 


72,853 : 


23,991 : 


673,912 


19A0 : 


490,511 : 


98,622 : 


74,350 : 


11,342 : 


674,825 


19^1 '. 


502,000 


97,987 : 


64,236 : 







1/ Includes virheat used in mixed commercial feeds and vrfieat fed on farms other 
than where grovm. 

Source: VJheat Situation, lTS-64, Feb. 1942 and subsequent revisions. 
Bur. Agr. Econ., U. S. Dept, Agr, 



- 38 - 



Storage Facilities 

An inventor}^ of cominercial grain storage capacity in the United States as 
of February 16, 19^2, made by the Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, revealed a total capacity of 1,602,258,000 bushels, 
of which 1,272,078,000 bushels were bulic storage, 315,313,000 bushels were 
bag storage, and 14,867,000 bushels vrere crib storage. New construction 
either underway or planned as of February 1, 1942, totaled 34,838,000 bushels. 

Several rough estijnates of farm storage indicate a total capacity of about 
2 billion bushels. 



USES 

The principal uses of vfheat in the United States consist of seed, feed, and 
food, Yifith the latter accounting for about two-thirds of the total (see 
table 25). The use of wheat or its products for industrial purposes has 
been relatively very small in the past, but there is a possibility that in 
the future larger and larger quantities may be utilized for such purposes. 



Seed 

Total United States annual wheat requirements for seed (see table 25) ranged 
from 64 to 96 million bushels for the period 1930-41. Of the quantity so 
used approximately 22 percent consisted of Hard Red Springy 6 percent of 
Durum^ 41 percent of Hard Red ViTinter, 22 percemt of Soft Red Winter, and 
9 percent of YJhite wheat. 



Feed 

Definite data on the total quantity of wheat fed annually in the United 
States are not available. Data, however, are available showing the quantity 
fed (see table 25) on farms vfhere produced. For the period 1930-41 this 
varied considerably, ranging from 72 to 174 million bushels. That this 
quantity represents the major portion of the total fed is apparent from the 
fact that in table 25 the "balancing item," in which is included all other 
wheat used for feed, in no year, for the period covered, exceeded 35 million 
bushels , 

The general use of wheat for feed is prevented owing to its relatively 
high price in relation to other grains, Hovrever, frequently situations in 
respect to supply arise ivhich make its use either necessary or desirable. 
Vifhen corn is cheap and plentiful, farmers rarely use much wheat for livestock 
feed. Yet when drouth reduces the corn crop, when the price of wheat is 
lower than that of corn, or the corn crop fails to keep pace with the 



_ 39 - 

production of young animals, the valie of wheat as a feed is rediscovered. 
Also, whenever there is a considerable proportion of daraaged wheat, the 
quantity used as feed is likely to increase for the reason that such wheat 
is unsuitable either for food or for seed and consequently usuall' is utilised 
for feed. 

The raost consistent use of wheat as feed is in the feeding of poultry. 
Practically all scratch and mash feeding mixtures contain from, one-third to 
three-fourths wheat or some product of wheat. No particular quality or 
type of wheat is demanded for this purpose 5 consequently, the cheaper grades 
and types are used. Red Duruiri wheat, ovfing to its relative cheapness, is 
one of the types so used. 

In the feeding of livestock 16/, v/heat is not considered an essential 
element in the ration, although in a general way, it is of equal feeding 
value, pound for pound, Yfith corn. It is better in most respects than barley 
or oats. It contains somevfhat more digestible protein than corn, a little 
less fat, and slightly mxore carbohyoi^ate. It is definitely higher than 
corn in energy value. It is also higher in net energy, total digestible 
nutrients, and carbohydrate than either oats or barley. Its I01-; crude fiber 
content gives it an advantage in digestibility over barley and more especially 
over oats. 

In the feeding of wheat to hogs the folloi/idng outstanding facts are impor- 
tant: (1) it may be substituted for corn and has about the same or slightly- 
higher feeding value than corn; (2) vj-hen fed it should be supplemented by 
the use of some form of protein concentrate; and (3) grinding increases its 
feeding value 15 to 20 percent. In most cases vdieat r.as shown a greater ad- 
vantage in the feeding of hogs than of other classes of livestock. 

For beef cattle feedlig Vvlieat is less palatable than corn but not less nu- 
tritious. Best results are obtained v/hen the v»'heat is fed in a coarsely 
ground or rolled form. It is practicable to substitute wheat for some, 
if not all, of the corn in the feeding ration. 

In the feeding of dairy cov/s best results are obtained if the wheat is used 
to an extent of notmore than 33-1/3 percent in the feed ration. 

In the feeding of sheep, wheat may be substituted for the other grains in 
the feed ration, but should be crushed or coarsely gro-'ond. 



16/ Practical Experiences in Feeding Vflieat, Fed. Fann Bd. Bui. No. 2, 
Nov. 1930, 

Feeding WOieat to Livestock, U. S. Dept. Agr., Misc. Pub. No. 86, 

Feeding Dairy Cgus, U. S. Dept. Agr., Farmers' Bui. 1626. 



• - 40 - 

Wheat is onlA^ fairly suitable as feed for larabs. It may be fed to horses 
vd-th good results, although caution is necessary on account of its highly 
concentrated nature and, therefore, it should be fed only when mixed Y.ath 
other grains. In table 26 are shovm the relative values per bushel of 
wheat, corn, and barley for feeding poultry, sheep, hogs, and beef cattle. 

Besides the use of whole v^'-heat for feeding purposes, the annual output of 
bran and shorts, byproducts of wheat flour milling, amounting to over 
4 million tons, is used for feed. These byproducts are an important source 
of livestock feed. 



Food 

Approxim.ately two-thirds of the annual United States domestic consumption 
of wheat, or roughly 480 million bushels, is for food. Some of this is 
consumed in the form of brealcfast foods, macaroni, and spaghetti, but the 
large portion of it is c Oliver ted to flour and used in making bread and 
pastry products. Table 2? shows tne census reports for 1929, 1937, and 
1939 giving the types and amounts of vriieat flour and breakfast foods pro- 
duced. 

Because of substitution of other foods and reduced calorie requirements 
for many persons relieved of arduous labor through technologic advance- 
ments', the per capita consumption of flour has been declining over a 
period of years. This decline has been so great that even the considerable 
increase in pppulatign that has taken place has been unable to prevent a 
docline in total consumption. Table 28 shows the per capita consumption 
of wheat flour at 10-year intervals, 1879-1880 to 1909-1910 and the annual 
consumption of vifheat and other cereals for the years 1919-20 to 1939-40. 



Industrial Uses 

It is fairly safe to say that np to 1941 not more than one million bushels 
of wheat were used annually for industrial purposes, including the making 
of starch, gluten, distilled spirits, malt, paste, and core-binder flour. 
In 1941 there vj-as a slight increase, and in 1942 a substantial increase is 
expected. 



Starch and Gluten 

Starch and gluten are products generally derived jointly from wheat flour. 
The production of wheat starch is the oldest branch of the starch industry. 
Since about 1910 its iraportance, however, has declined relative to corn- 
starch ovfing to the fact that it v^ras found that the latter made from a 
cheaper material was satisfactory for many purposes. Nevertheless, because 
vfheat starch possesses special characteristics which give it superiority 
over other starches for certain uses, it is still being produced in the 
United States and in many countries of Europe and the Orient. 



- 41 - 

Table 26.- Relative values per bushel of corn, v/heat, and barley, based on 
their relative vrorth for different feeding purposes 





■ Relative feeding value (not including cost of grinding) 

for - 


Vi/hen price of 


Poultry 


Sheep 


: Hogs and beef cattle 


corn is - 


1 T'Vheat 


\ TVheat 


Barley 


\ ll/heat 


\ Barley 


Cents 

50 
70 
75 
80 

90 

95 ! 

100 ! 

105 ! 

no ! 

115 ! 

120 ! 
125 1 


Cents 

\ 53.5 
: 75 
: SO : 
! 86 
91 
96 

102 i 

107 

113 : 

118 

123 : 

128 ! 

134 


: Cents 

i 53.5 

• 75 
80 

• 86 
91 
96 

102 
107 
113 
118 
123 
128 
134 


Cents 

40 
56 
: 60 : 
64 
68 
72 
76 
80 
84 

88 : 
92 
96 
100 


: Cents 

: 56 
: 79 
84 
: 90 
: 96 
: 101 : 
: 107 
: 112 
: 118 

123 : 
: 129 
: 134 
: 140 


: Cents 

: 40 

: 56 

: 60 

64 

r 68 

72 

76 

: 80 

: 84 

88 

92 

: 96 

: 100 



Source: Feeding I'Vheat to Livestock. U. S. Dept. Agr, Ivlisc. Pub. o6. 1930. 



Table 27. - U. S. Production of flour, bran and middlings, and breakfast foods 
made from wheat, 1939, 1937, and 1929 



Product 


: 1939 


: 1937 


: 1929 




■ 1,000 bbls. 
; 111,369 


• 1,000 bbls. 
\ 105,274 


=1,000 bbls. 


^Vheat and prepared flours - total 


\ 120,094 


l/Vhite flour, for sale as such 


: 95,891 






Blended flour, plain 


: 403 






Phosphated flour 


t 3,381 






Self -rising flour 


5,395 : 


1/ 101,416 . 


1/115,773 


Other prepared flours (biscuit 








cake, doughnut, pancake, etc.): 


718 ! 






Semolina flour ; 


3,394 : 


2,479 : 


2,959 


Graham and whole -wheat flour : 


2,187 : 


1,379 : 


1,362 



Bran and middlings 


. 1,000 tons 
; 4,500 


. 1,000 tons 
; 4,184 


.1,000 tons 
: 4,682 




' 1,000 lbs. 

299,539 ' 
153,453 : 


1,000 lbs. 

297,334 ' 
U9,161 ; 


1,000 lbs. 


Breakfast foods made from wheat: ] 
Ready to serve 
To be cooked before serving ] 


2/ 



1/ Not broken dovm on 1937 and 1929 census schedules. 

2/ Not available. 

Source: Manufacturers Census, Grain-ilill Products, l6th Census, 1939. 



Table 28. - United States apparent per capita consa^iption of wheat and other 
cereals, 1879-80 to 1939-40 







• Corn meal 








• Cereal 




Year 1/ 


'. Yftieat 
\ flour 


' and 

: corn flour 


flour 


. BuckvTheat 
', flour 


: Cleaned 
. rice 


• breakfast 
: foods 


= Total 




• Pounds 


• Pounds 


• Pounds 


• Pounds 


: Pounds 


• Founds 


' po-onds 


1879-80 


: 224.0 






1889-90 


r 224.0 














1899-1900 


: 224.0 


'■ 2/ 


; 2/ 


: 2/ 


; 2/ 


'•- 2/ 


= 2/ 


1909-10 


: 210.0 














1919-20 


: 175.0 


: 35.0 


\ 3.1 


\ 1.0 


\ 4.9 


: (10.0) 


: 229.0 


1920-21 


■ 176.0 


: 34.4 


: 2.7 


: .8 


: 6.0 


: (10.0) 


: 229.0 


1921-22 


: 176.0 


: 36.3 


: 2.6 


: .7 


: 4.4 


: (10.0) 


: 230.0 


1922-23 


^ 176.0 


r 35.9 


: 2.9 


: .6 


: 5.1 


: (10.0) 


r 226.8 


1923-24 : 


176.0 


; 32.5 


^ 2.4 


: .6 


: 5.3 


r (10.0) 


r 224.5 


1924-25 


176.0 


29.6 


: 2.8 


: .6 


: 5.6 


: 9.9 


: 224.6 


1925-26 


> 176.0 


29.3 


: 2.8 


: .5 


: 5.6 


: 10.4 


: 224.8 


1926-27 : 


176.0 


28.9 


: 2.9 


: .5 


: 5.6 


: 10.9 


: 226.4 


1927-28 : 


^ 176.0 i 


29.9 ! 


2.8 


r .5 


• 5.8 


; 11.4 


r 226.4 


1928-29 : 


• 176.0 : 


30.5 


• 2.8 


: .5 


: 5.6 


: 11.8 


: 227.2 


1929-30 : 


172.0 : 


28.2 


: 2.7 


.5 


: 5.0 


r 11.8 


X 220.2 


1930-31 : 


167.0 : 


26.5 


. 2.6 - 


.4 


1 5.6 . 


11.8 


• 213.9 


1931-32 : 


162.0 : 


26.4 


2.6 ; 


.3 


r 5.C 


: 10.9 


: 207.2 


1932-33 : 


159.0 ! 


25.6 : 


2.8 : 


.2 


• 5.9 


10.0 ; 


203.5 


1933-34 : 


154.0 : 


25.1 : 


2.8 : 


.2 : 


4.9 : 


9.6 


: 196.6 


1934-35 : 


154.0 : 


24.6 : 


2.5 '. 


.3 : 


5.9 : 


9.0 1 


196.3 


1935-36 : 


154.0 : 


24.5 : 


2.4 : 


.4 : 


5.3 : 


9.0. : 


195.6 


1936-37 : 


154.0 : 


23.6 : 


2.3 : 


.5 : 


6.7 : 


9.0 : 


196.1 


1937-38 : 


154.0 : 


23.4 : 


2.3 : 


O : 


6.4 : 


9.0 : 


195.4 


1938-39 : 


154.0 : 


23.4 : 


(2.3): 


(.3) : 


5.5 


(9.0) : 


194.5 


1939-40 3/: 


154.0 : 


2/ : 


2/ : 


2/ : 


2/ : 


2/ : 


2/ 


1940-41 3/: 


154.0 : 















1/ Year beginning July 1 for wheat, rye, buckwheat flour j August 1 for rice; and 

January 1 of the second year indicated for corn meal and breakfast food. 
2/ Not available. 
3/ Preliminary estimates. 

Source: l/iJheat figures for 1879-80 to 1909-10 based on data in Ytoeat Studies, 

Volume 4, No. 2; other figures from 1919-20 to 1938-39 from Northvrestern 
Miller, April 17, 1940. Figure for 1939-40 to 1940-41 from Nor thv/es tern 
Miller Almanack, April 29^ 1942. 

Note; The figures in parentheses are probably estimates based on figures im- 
mediAtely pi-ecedlng or following. 



- A-3 - 

Low-grade vj-heat flours are chiefly used in the production of wheat starch 
and gluten, but these flours must be selected v/ith care in order to assure 
the gluten being of proper quality. According to one source of informa- 
tion, usually "soft" wheat lovz-grade flour is used for this purpose. 

Yields vary considerably according to the flour used, but on the average 
one hundred pounds of flour vfill produce about 50 pounds of starch, 10 
pounds of gluten, and 22 pounds of "middlings." Since these are the only 
products, the difference betvveen their total v\reight and the weight of 
flour represents a shrinkage or invisible loss of IS pounds. The price 
relationship of these products is fairly virell represented by the following 
wholesale factory prices reported as prevailing in March 1936: Starch $4.17, 
gluten fpl3.00, and "middlings" $2.17 per 100 pounds. On July 8, 1942, the 
F.O.B. price of starch was $8.00, that of gum gluten $25,00, and of de^-dta- 
lized gluten $15.00 per 100 poujids. 

Two wet-milling companies in the United. States produce vj-heat starch and 
gluten. One is located at Harbor Beach, Michigan, and the other at 
Columbus, Ohio. Both use vfheat flour as a rav; material. Eight companies 
are reported to have operated prior to World Yifar I, but because of economic 
conditions during and after the war, six of them >;ithdrew from business. 
For the years 1919-35 for v;hich data are available annual United States 
production of ivheat starch varied from 4.7 million to 16.3 m.illion pounds 
and production of gluten from 0.6 million to 3.6 million pounds. During 
the last few years (1939-41) it is probable that the quantity of yfheat 
starch produced annually ha-s been somewhere bet./een 15 and IS million pounds. 

As indicated in the preceding paragraph the method used in the United States 
for wheat starch production is at the present time based on the use of 
flour as the rav/ material source. The process used consists in preparing 
a dough from, either first or second clear flour and thun kneading this 
dough under a spray of water v.;hich v/ashes the starch from the gluten. The 
gluten is dried either in vacuum or dr'om driers, and the starch slurry, 
after screening for the removal of fibrous material, is settled out on 
tables. It is reported that under normal operating conditions the follovf- 
ing approximate yields are obtained from the use of this method: first 
grade starch, from tables 51 percent; starch tailings, 22.5 percent; and 
gluten, both gum and devitalized, 11.5 percent. Losses based on the 
original flour consist of - moisture, 7 percent; solubles, 5 percent; and 
fibrous material, 3 percent. 

Wheat sta.rch is utilized chiefly in the laundry and textile industries — 
consumption in the former predominating. It is also used to some extent in 
adhesives. It does not possess the stiffening properties of corn, potato, 
or tapioca starch, but is more flexible and moisture resistant and conse- 
quently advantageous for certain finishes. Used in conjunction with other 
starches, it is of value in stabilizing the finish. In laundr;^^ work it 
is used on linen collars, shirts, etc. Its moisture resistance, good 
spreading properties, and strong adhesiveness make it desirable for ad- 
hesive use. 



- 44 - 

Gluten is marketed for food purposes and as a substitute for albumen 
in the textile industry. Much of the gluten produced in the United States 
is exported or is further processed into mono-sodium glutamate, knovm in 
the Orient where it originated as "ajinomoto." This secondary,'" product 
is used chiefly as a condiment for seasoning foods ^ particularly soups ^ 
gravies J and stews. Four pounds of wheat gluten are required to produce 
one pound of mono-sodium glutamate, 

Wae&t starch, rice starch, and v/hite and sweet potato starches together 
constitute only about one percent of the total United States production 
of starch (including that converted into sirup and sugar)] they are 
dutiable when imported. ITholesale prices in cents per pound reported in 
May 1942 for the various starches were as follovj-s: Vfheat (thick boiling) 
5.00; corn, pearl 3.47, po?;dered 3,51; rice 9.43; vj-hite potato 6,37; 
sweet potato 6.25; arrowroot (powdered) 9.50; sago (flour) 5.38; and 
tapioca 5.50. 

Gluten - Pr'ocea Process 17/ 

In addition to the methods of gluten extraction referred to in the section 
immediately preceding, there is one knovm as the Procea Process invented 
by an Australian named Bellingham, By this process the gluten is extracted 
from flour in a manner v/hich permits adding this gluten to flour dough 
used for baking bread. It is claimed the process can be operated in the 
usual bake shop. 

In extracting the gluten a dough is formied by mixing flour and v:ater to- 
gether. A little yeast is used with the water to aerate the dough. Then 
a "simple" chemical is nixed with the dou^^h and the whole left for 2 or 
3 hours, after v;hich it Yirill be foijiid that the starch and gluten have 
separated - the starch on the bottom and the gluten on the top with a layer 
of water between. The gluten may then be lifted out of the water en masse. 

The benefits from the use of this process, as claimed by its promoters, 
are as follo\^rs: (1) Bread dough made from almost any type of flour can be 
modified by the addition of gluten extracted either from the same or from 
other flour J (2) by thus increasing the gluten content of a dough, the 
possibility is greatly increased of obtaining good quality bread; (3) the 
gluten itself may be used in producing starch-free or lov^-starch breads 
for "slimming" and health diets; and (4) the process makes possible the 
utilisation of lovi-grade flours, in bread production by using them as sources 
of gluten to be added to bread doughs made from other flour. 

No mention is made in published articles concerning the possible use of 

the starch separated from the gluten by the use of the Procea Process but 

it is probable that this product could be utilized in the production of cakes. 



17/ Sources of information: Food Manufacture, October 1935, and Bakers 
Helper, October 5, 1935, 



- 45 - 



Alcohol and Potable Spirits 

Until recently wheat has been used only to a small extent in the produc- 
tion of industrial alcohol and potable spirits. In the production of the 
latter only sound vj-heat is used, but in the production of the former un- 
sound wheat raight be used. According to official reports 18/, the quanti- 
ties of wheat used in the production of alcohol and other distilled spirits 
for fiscal years 1901-40 were as follows: 



Year 


Bushels 


Year 


Bushels 


Year 


Bushels 


(ending 




(ending 




(ending 




June 30) 




June 30) 




June 30) 




1901 


24,171 


1914 


10,582 


1927 


— 


1902 


29,391 


1915 


4,550 


1928 


— 


1903 


32,197 


1916 


3,373 


1929 


— 


1904 


23,915 


1917 


• 2,533- 


1930 


11,990 


1905 


12,481 


1918 


— 


1931 


28,379 


1906 


11,366 


1919 


1 — 


1932 


331,631 


1907 


21,452 


1920 


— 


1933 


6,480 


1908 


11,756 


1921 


— 


1934 


44,000 


1909 


9,648 


1922 


— 


1935 


51,000 


1910 


10,316 


1923 . 


— 


1936 


— 


1911 


21,765 


1924 


— 


1937 


51,000 


1912 


25,505 


1925 


— 


1938 


39,000 


1913 


2,756 


1926 


~~ 


1939 
1940 


56,000 
30,000 



The reason such small amounts of wheat have been used in past ^^ears for al- 
cohol production has been mainly that its price was higher than the prices 
of other grains. In 1942, however, the serious vfheat surplus problem (crop 
carry-over of 627 million bushels), the greatly increased dem.and for al- 
cohol for use in the production of munitions, synthetic rubber, and other 
essential supplies, and the scarcity of black strap molasses, previously 
the chief raw material for alcohol production, created a situation which 
made it advisable for the Commodity Credit Corporation to offer some of its 
holdings of wheat for distilling purposes at relatively low prices. 

The possibility of any expansion in the use of wheat for the production of 
potable spirits has not been explored until recently. From recent trials 
it has been found that the characteristic flavor of the alcoholic spirits 
produced from vrtieat is not significantly different from corn spirits, under 
modern distillation and fermentation procedures. 



18/ Statistics for fiscal years 1901-1933, vdth blanks for the Federal 
Prohibition years, are from U. S. Treasury Department, Bur. of Ind, Alcohol 
report of Dec. 1933, "Statistics Concerning Intoxicating Liquors", Statis- 
tics for 1934-1940 are from U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bur. Agr. Econ, Feed 
statistics supplement No. 2, table 21. 



- 46 - 



The alcohol yield from v;heat compares very favorably vj-ith those from other 
starchy farm crops as is shoivn in table 29. YiThatever yield advantage it 
has, however, is usually offset by inverse price relationships v/hich favor 
the use of other materials j this accounts for the relatively small quantity 
of "Wheat used for this purpose in past years. 

Table 29. - Potential 3''ields 1/ of alcohol and dried distillers' grains 
from wheat — and the quantity of malt required — in comparison 
xTith other crops as alcohol sources 







■ Approx. yield 1/ 


• AiJ 


■^rox, yield 1/ 






• of 95/^ a: 


_cohol 


: of 


distillers ' 


Kind of material 


•"vTeight per bushel 


• per spec: 


.fifed 


: gr-: 


2. ins on total- 






• bushel T.'ei^ht 


■ material vfeight 




• Pounds 


' Gallons 




Percent 


7i/heat j 


' 60 


\ 2.8 


2/ 




26,9 


Corn J 


56 , 


. 2.5 






22.3 


Grain Sorghum , 


50 . 


2.1 






2A.4 


Rye '. 


56 


2.3 




t 


27.1 


Rice (rough) , 


45 


1.9 




; 


26.0 


Oats , 


32 J 


1.1 






42.3 


Potatoes 


60 


.8 




[ 


3,S 


Svveet potatoes . 


55 'i 


1.0 


: 




4.0 



1/ Based on mixtares of 88 percent grain and 12 percent malt. 
2/ Mieat has a greater variation in carbohydrate content than corn, 
Commercial ?/heat, therefore, may give lower alcohol yields than 



commercial 



corn, for the grades ordinarily used. 



Source: Use of Alcohol from Farm Products in Motor Fuel, 
Senate Document 57, 73rd Congress, 1st session. 



Malt 

Most malt is made from barley and rye. It may also be made from vdieat, 
but that grain has not been used for malt to any appreciable extent until 
quite recently, principally because of its higher price in relation to 
barley and rye. 

The principal use of malt is in the distilling and brewing industries for 
saccharifying starch in order to make it available to micro-organisms 
vfhich convert the sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide. For this purpose 
barley and rye malts are very satisfactory. There is another use, however, 
which has been gaining in Importance, namely, that of being mixed with 



- 47 - 



wheat flour for increasing diastatic activity in order to obtain improved 
quality in bread baking. For this use barley and rye malts a»e not so 
satisfactory as wheat malt for two reasons^ (1) undesirable color effects 
and (2) legal prohibitions on flour mixtures. One maltster xfno vvas using 
wheat in 1940 stated there Yfas a potential United States market for 5 million 
bushels of vrtieat annually for m.alting purposes. 

The use of v/heat malt for improving the baking quality of flours may be 
accomplished in three different ways. The luheat m.alt as grain may be mixed 
with the m.ill grist of vj-heat before milling^ it may be milled separately 
and the flour therefrom mixed with other flour at the mill v/here the latter 
is produced] or the malt flour may be mixed vfith other flour at the bake 
shop. Millers ^j'ho add wheat malt to their mill grist before grinding add 
it in amiOunts up to 0.2 percent. 

Soft starchy wheats have been generally used in the making of wheat mialt 
•but it is reported that malt made from hard wheats has a higher diastatic 
activity. 



Paste 

Pastes for use in bookbinding and paper hanging are sometimes made from 
ViTheat flour. For these purposes soft wheat "lo¥J"-grade" and "clear" flourj 
are usually preferred. Formerly, practically all paste used for paper 
hanging was made from wheat flour, but in recent years professional paper 
hangers have been using a prepared paste made chiefly from cornstarch. 
Some lo'vT-grade flour is used in the manufacture of ply.-vood adhesives. 



Core -Binder Flour 

Wheat flour is frequentlj- used in iron foundries as a core binder in the 
preparation of molds for castings. Fldir of any grade or degree of sound- 
ness is suitable for this purpose; consequently, loi.''-grade and damaged 
flours which are the cheapest are generally used. 



FLOUR MILLING PROCESSES 



Modern Procesa 

In the milling of wheat it is generally the aim to separate the branny 
covering and germ from the endosperm "with as little contamination of the 
latter as possible and then pulverize the endosperm into flour. The present 
or modern process is one of gradual reduction of the kernel with subsequent 
sifting operations after each reduction. The reductions are accomplished 
betvreen chilled iron rolls revolving in opposite directions at different 
rates of speed. 



43 - 



Before wheat is ground into flour it riust be thoroughly cleaned and 
properly conditioned. The cleaning, owing to th:^ varied kinds of weed 
seeds, other grains and other foreign material which may be present, re- 
quires the use of a variety of methods and devices. These include magnetic 
separators for removing iron and steel objects, vrashers for removing smut 
spores and otiier loose dirt, combination screening-and-fanning machines 
called recei\dng-and -milling separators for removing loose, coarse, and 
fine materials, scourer-s for removing fixed surface dirt and the fine hairs 
(referred to collectix'ely as the "brush") which occur on one end of the 
wheat kernel, and other m.achines of a special character for the removal 
of sm.all stones, garlic, cockle, mustard, and oats. 

The modern miilling process used in the production of flour is designed to 
talce advantage of the natural physical characteristics and susceptibilities 
of the component parts of the wheat kernel. Maxim.um milling efficiency 
is attained only I'Xhen the grain is in proper condition vmen milled. The 
brannjT" covering of the kernel is tougher than the other com.ponents, a 
characteristic permitting the breaking up of the other components without 
materially reducing the bran and thereby making possible their separation 
on the basis of difference in size of particle. This toughness varies ac- 
cording to the amount of moistiire present. The embrj'^o or germ is oily and 
when of the right m.oisture content is soft and pliable, which characteristics 
enable it to be easily flattened into sizable particles that can be readily 
separated from the endosperm. The endosperm or flour component of the 
kernel is friable Vifhen it contains the proper amount of moisture, and is 
then capable of being fractured to angular particles of various sizes ac- 
carxiLng to the will of the miller. If the endosperm has too much moisture 
it has a tendency to flake, whereas if it has too little m.oisture its resis- 
tance to pulverization is increased; efforts to overcom.e such resistance 
to pulverization cause the endosperm to pulverize into flour too early 
in the process. The conditioning of wheat for miilling, therefore, is 
largely a matter of adding or taking moisture from the ViTheat in a manner 
that will result in the proper moisture content for each of the component 
parts of the kernel. To accomplish this, either drying or v^retting vrlth 
subsequent storage in tanl-cs for a nuinber of hours to allow for penetration, 
or proper distribution, may bo necessary depending upon* the original con- 
dition of the grain. In som^e instances the application of heat may be 
essential to attaining the optimum condition for the grinding and subsequent 
sifting operations. 

Starting vfith the cleaned and conditioned grain the modern process of mill- 
ing consists of a series of grinding operations, some knovm as "breaks", 
and the remainder as "reductions," each folloi^-ed by a sifting operation "or 
operations combined in some instances Y\rith air aspiration. The "breaks" 
are accom.plished by use of corrugated rolls, v/hereas the "sizings" and 
"reductions" are generally all done on sm.ooth rolls. However, on sizings 
and on certain reductions finel^'" corrugated or scratch rolls are sometimes 
used. 



- A9 - 



The principal milling product is flour. Ordinarily the byproducts are 
bran and shorts but occasionally incj.ude v/heat germ Y/hich is used as 
a health food. Bran and shorts are used as feed for livestock. Shorts, 
which is composed of fine particles of bran and germ and unseparated por- 
tions of the endosperm, is sometimes divided into flour middlings, or 
gray shorts, and standard middlings, or brown shorts. The flour product 
if undivided is called "straight" but frequently it is divided into 
"patent," "clear," " lovj'-grade , " and sometijnes "red dog" flours. Theoreti- 
cally, "straight" flour is the total flour product, but generally from 
2 to 5 percent of the poorest flour is excluded. The "patent" flour is 
that portion of the total flo'or freest from bran particles and best in 
quality. This name Yfas originally applied to flour resulting from the 
reduction of granular endosperm particles which had been purified of 
bran particles by use of the middlings purifier, a patented device. Patent 
flour is of the "short," "fancy," "long," or "standard" variety according 
to the percent (30 to 95) it represents of the total volume of flour milled, 
"Clear" flour, also called "bakers," is the second grade flour fraction 
and may represent from 5 to 55 percent of the total volume of the flour. 
It is sometimes subdivided into "first" and "second" clear with first 
clear being superior to second clear. "Lov;-grade," representing 1 to 5 
percent of the total, is the poorest grade of flour unless a longer than 
average extraction of flour is made in v/hich case a still lower grade 
knovm as "Red Dog" is produced. 

In case a short or low percent patent flour is made, the remaining flour, 
if not further divided, is called "cut-straight." Another grade sometimes 
produced is "filled-" or "stuffed-straight" consisting of a straight flour 
from one run of v>rheat to which has been added "clear" or "cut-straight" 
flour from another run. 

The yield of flour from a bushel (60 pounds) of wheat varies someiffhat 
according to milling efficiency and to its grade and weight per measured 
bushel (see table 30). In the United States, on the average, 4.6 bushels 
of clean wheat are used to produce a barrel (196 pounds) of vj"hite flour, 
representing a flour yield or extraction of approximately 71 percent. Bran 
yields generally run from 9 to 16 percent of the Y^eight of clean vmeat, 
and shorts yields from 12 to 16 percent. Commercial Y/heat germ yields run 
from one-half to one and one-half purcent. 



Other Milling Pr ocesses 

The modern or roller milling process Yvhich Yvas adopted about 1870 displaced 
the buhr-stone process. The main differences betY/een these two processes 
are in the duration of processing and the type of grinding machines used. 
The roller process includes more reduction operations than the buhr-stone 
process and more sifting and purification refinements Yfhich make it m.ore 
efficient. The type of grinding machines used in each process is implied 
ty its name. The efficiency of the roller process, although higher than 



-50- 



Table 30, - Average flour ("straight" grade) yields 1/ from wheats of various 

freights per bushel 



V^eat 
weight 




Yields 1/ by wheat class 










per bushel 2/ 


.Hard Red Spring 


[ Durum 


] Hard Red Winter 


;Soft Red Winter 


; 7Jliite 


Pounds 


Percent 
! 73.8 


.Percent 


• • 

', Percent [ Percent 


.Percent 


63 


! 72.9 


! 73.3 


! 72.4 


! 70.3 


62 


! 72,8 


! 72.4 


: 73.5 


! 71.6 


! 70.8 


61 


! 71.8 


! 71.0 


! 72,5 


! 70.7 


! 70.4 


60 


! 71.0 


! 70.3 


5 71.8 


! 69.6 


5 70.3 


59 


! 70.8 


i 69.2 


! 71.3 


; 69.6 


! 69.7 


58 


! 69.7 


; 68.7 


! 70.8 


! 68.3 


I 69.2 


57 


! 69.0 


' 66.8 


! 70.7 


! 67.9 


! 68.3 


56 : 


68.0 


65.1 


! 70.5 


! 67.3 


; 66.9 


55 


66.4 


: 64.3 


69.1 


! 67.0 


; 66.3 


54 ; 


65.8 ! 


^ 62.5 . 


68.3 J 


66.3 


65.1 


53 : 


64.5 ! 




66.6 : 




64.4 


52 \ 


63.6 J 




67.1 J 




64.3 


51 i 


62.8 ! 




65.5 : 




63. ^ 


50 : 


62.1 ': 


J 








49 *: 


61. ^ J 




• c 

• • 

: : 




48 i 


60.7 : 











1/ Percentage that weight of total ("straight") flour product is of Yfeight of 
dockage-free wheat before temper Lng. 

2/ Y/inchester bushel. 

Source: Averages from experimental milling tests performed in the U. S. Dept. 
Agr., Bur. Agr. Econ. Milling and Baking Laborator^.^ 1915-24. Total 
number of tests involved, 5383. 



- 51 - 



that of the buhr-stone process, is nevertheless not as high as is desired. 
This is apparent from the fact that, v^hereas the yield of flour by this 
process averages 71 percent of the iveight of the wheat kernel, the actual 
endosperm (floury portion) content of the kernel is about 85 percent. 
Thus there is an apparent waste of L4 percent of flour in the present mill- 
ing process. This inefficiency shows the need for ijiiprovement in the 
present milling process, A number of attempts at improvement either in 
efficiency of production or in quality of product have been made, but all 
thus far have either failed to give the desired improvement or have been 
impracticable for general milling purposes. The more important of these 
in recent years are the "Steinmetz" and "Earle" processes. 

The "Steinmetz" and "Earle" processes are based on the principle of re- 
moving the outer coating from the kernel by soaking before beginning its 
reduction into flour. A special feature of the Steinmetz process v^hich 
originated in Germany about 1920 is that it requires the immediate use of 
the flour by a special baking process. 

The Earle process 19/, invented in 194-1 by an American mining engineer, 
permits the production of a flour that requires neither immediate use nor 
baking by unconventional methods. In this process the vfheat, immersed in 
water, is conducted through a series of flotation units or tubs in virhich 
it is churned by impellers, A small amount of sodium carbonate is intro- 
duced into the first tub to keep the pH of the water at a suitable figure. 
Also, a small amount of pine oil is added to assist v^rith the formation of 
foam essential to flotation of the outer coating particles peeled from the 
wheat kernel by the churning action of the impellers. 

Much importance is attached to the retention in flour of vitamins by the 
recent nutrition trend which emphasizes the need for a higher vitamin 
content in foods. Promotion of the Earle process has been largely on this 
basis and, v-zhether or not it succeeds, this trend' in nutrition is likely to 
have some effect on future milling processes. 

The. so-called Morris milling process patented in 1935 is primarily a modi- 
fication of the conventional modern roller process having to do with pul- 
verization of the wheat germ (embryo) and its Incorporation in the flour 
in such a manner that the keeping qualities of the flour will not be im- 
paired. The modifications used in accomplishing these results have to do 
with the grinding and aeration of those mill stocks containing most of the 
germ. Such stocks are ground much finer and aerated to a much greater 
extent than is customary in the conventional process. 



19/ Sources of description: Peeled Vrtieat, B;^'- Maurice Johnson. The 
Northwestern Miller, April 9, 19^1, and Food Indus., 13 (19/^1). 



- 52 - 



Geographical Distribution of Milling Capacity and Flour Production 

There vrere an estimated 3,001 flour mills in the United States on January 1, 
1942, T^-ith a total flour-producing capacity of 709,768 barrels per 24-hour 
day; corresponding estimates on January 1, 1941, shovred 3,337 mills with a 
production capacity of 727,398 barrels. The trend toward a smaller number 
of mills and a reduction in milling capacity has been apparent since the 
turn of the century. This decline has been due largely to the abandonment 
of sm.all customi mills, the consolidation and enlargement of terminal i.ierchant 
mills, and a reduction in the per capita wheat flour consumption. In 
table 31 are shovvTi the number of mills, milling capacity, and the quantity 
of ViTheat ground and flour produced for the period 1914 to 1941. 



Table 31. - The number of flour m.ills, milling capacity, quantity of wheat 
ground, the amount of flour produced, and wheat ground per 
barrel of flour ; 1914-1941 







: VJheat flour 






} iiT/heat per 


Year 


\ No. of 1/ 


• milling 


[ ^^eat 


', Flour 


± 

; barrel 




; mills 2/ 


: capacity 1/ 


[ ground 3/ 


1 produced 3/ 


: of flour 






• Barrels per 


: 1000 


: 1000 








i 24-hour day 


: bushels 


• barrels 


r Bushels 


1914 


\ 7780 


; 1,013,318 


! 545,728 


! 116,404 


' 4.69 


1919 


. 7983 


. 1,005,700 


. 612,562 


! 132,466 


, 4.62 


1921 


. 7603 


; 1,035,700 


521,234 


\ 110,846 


4.70 


1923 


: 7348 


; 1,058,000 


: 538,312 


; 1U,439 . 


t 4.70 


1925 


6971 


'. 1,000,000 


530,593 


114,690 


4.63 


1927 


: 5303 . 


984,610 


544,054 


; 118,132 


4.61 


1929 


^ 4777 


983,921 . 


546,242 


! 120,094 


4.55 


1931 


4718 


926,821 


526,098 


'. 115,419 ; 


4.56 


1933 


3934 : 


842,073 . 


4/ 


V 


V 


1935 


4255 : 


840^615 


470,533 


102,327 


, 4.^0 


1937 


4063 : 


811^452 ; 


485,869 ; 


105,274 


4.62 


1939 


3865 J 


788,740 


508,054 . 


111,369 


. 4.56 


1940 


3423 : 


737,391 i 


5/506,708) 


5/(111,345) i 


(4.55) 5/ 


1941 J 


3337 . 


727,398 . 


5X505,597) : 


5/(111,103) ; 


(4.55) 5/ 


1942 : 


3001 . 


■ 709,768 . 









1/ On January 1 of designated year. Taken from Northv^estern Miller, 
Januar\^ 21, 1942, 

2/ Active wheat and rye flour mills -with daily capacity of 25 barrels or more, 

3/ From Biennial Census of Manufactjrers, 

4/ Data for 1933 not comparable vd-th other years because of differences in 
census schedule, 

5/ Calculated from Current Statistical Service Releases of the Bureau of 
Census, 



- 53 - 



Buffalo J Kansas City, and Llinneapolis, in the order named, are the leading 
flour-producing centers; Kansas, New York, and Minnesota are the leading 
f lo^or-producing states; the Southwest, which' includes mills located in 
Kansas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska, and in Kansas City and St. Joseph, Missouri, 
is the principal flour-producing district; and General Mills, Incorporated, 
Pills bury Flour Mills Company, and Co:Timander-Larabee Milling Company are 
the largest milling companies. Data shovang the production of flour by 
principal districts and centers are presented in table 32, In table 33 
are listed the 10 leading flour m.illing companies of the United States, 

Shifts in the geographical center of the flour-milling industry have oc- 
curred intermittently since early in the nineteenth century, follovj-ing 
changes in population, shifts in wheat producing areas and tj^es of wheat 
produced, technological advances in milling methods, changes in freight 
rates, and changes tn many other factors. 

i ' . '. 

During the early 1800' s, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Richmond, Virginia, 
Tfere in turn the most important milling centers and by 1850 Rochester, 
New York had assumed leadership in the amount of flour produced. The 
latter city's milling activities declined in ianportance, however, as the 
vast soft vfheat producing territory of the Mississippi and Missouri Valleys 
came into production creating a nen source of supply. This and the advan- 
tage of water transportation projected St. Louis and Cincinnati to preemii- 
nence as milling centers. However, their leadership was short-lived with 
the introduction in 1878 of the technological advancements in milling 
methods — the roller mill and purifier. These improvements permitted hard 
spring wheat, v>rith its superior quality for breadmaking, to be processed 
to better advantage, thereby revolutionizing the industry and creating 
a market for northwestern wheat. As a consequence, Minneapolis became the 
milling center of the country and remained so until superseded by B'offalo 
in 1929. Since 1937 Kansas City hasb^n second to Buffalo in the production 
of flour. 

Buffalo's ascendency to first place in milling importance vfas largely the 
result of its favorable location. Being situated at the eastern terminus 
of the lake transportation route, which permits lo\7 vrater rates on vriicat 
shipped from the West and short rail hauls for flour shipped to the la.rge 
eastern consumption centers, was a contributing factor. Also, Buffalo 
is so situated between export markets and Canadian producing areas as to 
be able to take full advantage of the milling-in-bond privilege on Canadiaii 
wheat. 



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p> 


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1 


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ci 


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•H S 


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cd 


-P P> EH 


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•H 






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O 


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1 




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- 55 - 



Table 33. - The ten largest v/heat flour milling companies in the United States 
in 1942 



Company 


\ Headquart 


ers 


i Daily capaci' 








: Barrels 


General Mills, Incorporated 


: Minneapolis, 


Minn . 


: 70,650 


Pillsbury Flour Mills Company 


: Minneapolis, 


Minn . 


: 39,000 


Commander-Larabee Milling Company 


: Minneapolis, 


Minn , 


: 22,200 


Russell-Miller Milling Company 


: Minneapolis, 


Minn. 


: IS, 500 


Colorado Milling and Elevator Company 


; Denver, Colo 




: 16,700 


Tex-0-Kan Milling Company 


Dallas, Tex. 




: 15,200 


International Milling Company ; 


Minneapolis, 


Minn. 


: U,500 


Standard Milling Company : 


Chicago, 111 




12,700 


National Milling Branch of : 








National Biscuit Company : 


Toledo, Ohio 




8,500 


Flour Mills of America, Inc. : 


Kansas City, 


Mo. : 


8,4-00 



Source: The Northwestern Miller Almanack, April 29, 194.2. 



- 56 - 



WHEAT UTILIZATION RESEAECH 



Under Section 202 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture was authorized and directed to "establish, equip, 
and maintain four Regional Research Laboratories, one in each major farm 
producing area, and at such laboratories to conduct researches into and 
to develop new, scientific, chemical, and technical uses and new and ex- 
tended markets and outlets for farm commodities and products and byproducts 
thereof. Such research and development shall be devoted primarily to 
those farm commodities in vfhich there are regular or seasonal surpluses 
and their products and byproducts," In accordance Yfith these provisions 
research in wheat utilization is being conducted by the Northern and 
fifes tern Regional Research Laboratories, located at Peoria, Illinois, and 
Albany, California, respectively. 

These researches include determination of composition and structure of 
different varieties produced under various environmental conditions j 
quantitative recovery, fractionation, purification, and modification of 
wheat proteinj fractionation, recovery, chemical constitution, and modi- 
fication of the starch constituent; and investigations on fermentation 
of vfheat and Y/heat derivatives. No special study of the oil constituent 
is planned owing to the fact that wheat germ, the portion of the kernel 
containing most of the oil, already finds ready sale at relatively high 
prices in comparison with other component or constituent parts of the 
wheat kernel. The researches on v/heat protein are being conducted by 
the Western Regional Research Laboratory, while the researches on the 
other wheat constituents are being conducted by the Northern Regional 
Research Laboratory. 



-.57 - 

SEI^CTED REFERENCES 

Bailey, C. H. The chemistry of wheat flour. New York, The Chemical Cata- 
log Company, Inc., 1925. 

Blish, M. J. The gluten and non-glaten proteins. Cereal Chem, l\U2'L~U?.l » 

and Sandstedt, R. M. The nature and identity of wheat gluten. 



Jour. Eiol. Chem. 85: 195-206. 

Carleton, M. A. Hard -wheats winning their way. U. S. Dept. Agr. Yearbook, 
391-4-20 (1914-). 

Clark, J. A. Improvemient in wheat. U. S. Dept, Agr. Yearbook, 207-302 (1936) 

and Bayles, B. B, Classification of wheat varieties gro-ym in 
the United States iji 1939. U. S. Dept. Agr, Tech, Bui, 795 (1942). 

and Quisenberrj^, K. S. Distribution of the varieties and classes 
of wheat in the United States in 1939. U, S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 634 (1942). 

Combs, W. B., and Smdth, G. F. Grain grading prij-;ier. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. 
Pub. 324 (1940). 

de Hevesy, P. Viforld wheat planning and economic planning in general, London, 
Oxford University Press, 1940. 

Dedrick, B, W, Practical milling. Chicago, National Miller, 1924, • 

Dondlinger, P. T, The book of viheat. Nevf York, Orange Judd Company, 1910.'' 

Federal Farm Board. Practical experiences in feeding wheat, Bui, 2 (1930), 

Holman, R. M,, and Bobbins, W, I'T, General Botany, NeYv" York, John Wiley 
and Sons, Inc., 1939. 

Hunt, T, F. The cereals of America, New York, Orange Judd Com.pany, 1911. 

Ingersoll, C. L., et al, l/'iiheat ana some of its products, Nebr, Agr. Expt. 
Sta. Bui, 32 (1893), 

Jacobs, P. B,, and Newton, H. P, Motor fuel from farm proaucts, U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 327 (1938). 

Jasny, N, Competition among grains, Stanford University, California, 1940. 

Jones, D. B. l;?heat - its protein and nutritional properties. Jour, Cereal 
Chem. Vol, XIV, No, 6. 771-782 (1937). 

Factors for converting percentages of nitrogen in foods and feeds 



into percentages of protein. U. S. Dept. Agr, Circ. No. 183 (1931). 



- 53 - 

Kent-Jones, D. ¥. Jiodern cereal chemistry, Liverpool, Northern Pub. Co, 
Ltd,, 3rd ed. , 1939. 

Malott, D. W. , and Martin, B. F. Agricult-oral industries. Nevf York, McC-ra-vv- 
Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939. 

Mangels, C. E, et al. Cereal laboratory methods,. Minneapolis, tond Press, 
1935. 

Osborne, T. B., and Voorhees, C, G. The proteins of the 'vJ-heat kernel, 
Amer. Chem. Jour, 15: 392-471 (1393). 

and Clapp, S. H, The chemistry of the protein bodies of the 



wheat kernel. Part III. Hydrolysis of the wheat proteins. Amer, Jour. 
Physiol, 17: 231-265 (1906). 

Percival, J. The wheat plant. London, Duck^/forth and Company, 1921, 

Pickett, V. G,, and Vaile, R, S, The decline in northwestern flour milling. 
Studies in Econom.ics and Business, No, 5« University of Minnesota (1933). 

Sandstedt, R. M,, and Blish, M, J, A nev: characterization of the gluten 
proteins. Cereal Chem.. 10: 359-366, 

Shepherd, G, et al. Power alcohol from farm products: Its chemistry, 
engineering, and economics, lovra Corn Research Institute, Vol. 1, No, 3 
lov/a Agr. Exp, Sta, (19^0), 

Spicer, R, Starch, U, S, Dept. Conuiierce Foodstuffs Div, (1933), 

Swanson, C. 0. Iffheat and flour quality. Minneapolis, Burgess Publishing 
Company, 1938, 

United States Department of Agriculture, Feeding v^heat to livestock. Misc. 
Pub. 96 (1930), 

Handbook of official grain standards of the United States, 



U.S.G.S.A. Form No, 90 (Revised 19^1). 
The Yfheat situation,. Monthly publication of Bur. Agr. Econ, 



United States Congress. Regional research laboratories. Sen, Doc. 65, 
76th Congress, 1st session. 

United States Congress, Use of alcohol from farm production in motor fuel. 
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United States Tariff Commission. Starches, dextrines, and related products. 
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YiTorking, H, The decline in per capita consumption of flour in the United 
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